Types of Hajj In Terms of Its Performance (Shafii)

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How many types of hajj are there according to performance?

In terms of its performance, there are three types of hajj, namely hajj al-ifrad, hajj al-tamattu, and hajj al-qiran. One who intends to go to pilgrimage needs to learn how to perform the rites of hajj:

1. Hajj al-Ifrad

It is the type of hajj in which the pilgrim enters ihram for the hajj during the hajj months, then after completing all of the hajj rites, the pilgrim enters ihram for the umrah. This is the most virtuous type of hajj.

The pilgrim who wants to perform hajj al-ifrad makes intention to perform hajj in the place of miqat. The intention is made as follows: “Nawaytu al-hajja wa ahramtu bihi lillahi taala. Labbayk allahumma labbayk. Labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Inna al-hamda wa al-ni’mata laka wa al-mulk. La sharika lak.” (I intend to perform hajj and enter the state of ihram for it for the sake of Allah Almighty. Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.)

After the pilgrim who performs hajj al-ifrad arrives in Mecca and performs the circumambulation of arrival (tawaf al-qudum), he waits in the state of ihram. When the time for the rites of hajj comes, he carries them out. After completing the rites of hajj, he is released from the state of ihram. After that, he goes out of the Haram area, makes his intention to perform the umrah, enters the state of ihram, and performs the umrah.

2. Hajj al-Tamattu

It is the type of hajj in which the pilgrim enters ihram for the ‘umrah during the hajj months from whatever miqat he passes through on his way to Mecca. The pilgrim then performs the rites for the ‘umrah and is released from the state of ihram. After completing them, he enters ihram for the hajj in Mecca or in a place near him. According to the Hanbalis, this is the most virtuous type of hajj.

The pilgrim who would like to perform hajj al-tamattu makes his intention to perform only umrah in the place of miqat as follows, “Nawaytu al-umrata wa ahramtu biha lillahi taala. Labbayk allahumma labbayk. Labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Inna al-hamda wa al-ni’mata laka wa al-mulk. La sharika lak.” (I intend to perform umrah and enter the state of ihram for it for the sake of Allah Almighty. Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.)

When the pilgrim who performs hajj al-tamattu arrives in Mecca, he performs tawaf and sa’y for umrah and then have his hair is shaved and he is released from the state of ihram. He then enters the state of ihram again for hajj when the proper time comes and performs hajj. It is compulsory for the pilgrim who performs hajj al-tamattu to sacrifice a qurban. This is because the pilgrim who performs hajj al-tamattu benefits from the impunity from the prohibitions of ihram during the time between umrah and hajj.

3. Hajj al-Qiran

It is the type of hajj which is performed by making intention to perform umrah and hajj together with one ihram and one intention in the season of hajj. According to the Hanafi School, this is the most virtuous type of hajj.

The pilgrim who wants to perform hajj al-qiran makes his intention in miqat to perform both hajj and umrah as follows “Nawaytu al-hajja wa al-umrata wa ahramtu bihima lillahi taala. Labbayk allahumma labbayk. Labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Inna al-hamda wa al-ni’mata laka wa al-mulk. La sharika lak.” (I intend to perform hajj and umrah and enter the state of ihram for both of them for the sake of Allah Almighty. Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.)

The pilgrim, who performs hajj al-qiran, stays in the state of ihram after he arrives at Mecca and performs the circumambulation of arrival. After that, when the specific time for hajj rites comes, he performs them. Since the rites of umrah are incorporated into the rites of hajj, he does not need to perform the rites of umrah separately. Due to this easiness, it becomes compulsory for the pilgrim who performs hajj al-qiran to sacrifice a qurban.

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Shafi’i School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

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