Are there any types of fasting in islam?
Fasting is separated into groups according to their rulings. These are; the ones that are fardh to fast, fasting that is wajib, fasting that is nafilah and fasting that is makruh.
a. Fasts that Are Fardh
There are two types of fasts that are fardh:
- The Ramadhan Fast: This is the fast that all Muslims are held responsible for fasting in the month of Ramadhan. Muslims; who are able-minded, have reached puberty and have no excuse/ handicap that will prevent them from fasting.
- The Qaza and Kafarat (Atonement) of the Ramadhan Fast: The qaza of the Ramadhan fast that could not be fasted or that was broken due to an excuse and to fast to make up for the fast the person could not fast without any excuse is fardh.
The qaza and kafarat of the Ramadhan fast, is part of the group of the fardh fast in which there days are not certain. According to most fakihs the qaza and kafarat of these fasts need to be fasted in the year they were not fasted.
The person whose fast has been left to qaza must make up for these outside of the Ramadhan month and they must do this on days where its mubah to fast. As for the kafarat fast, it may be fasted for two hijri months or sixty days back to back at a time when it is permissible to fast.
- The nazir fast: The nazir fast is the fast that the person vows to carry out for the sake of Allah.
b. Mandub Fasts
It is considered mandub to carry out these fasts:
- The Arafa day fast for the person who is not at Hajj,
- Fasting for eight days before the day of Arafa,
- The ashura fast that is fasted on the tenth day of the month of Muharram and also fasting on the ninth and eighth day before this,
- To fast in the month of Rajab and Shaban,
- To fast on Mondays and Thursdays,
- The fast that is carried out during the day in the middle of the month of Shaban,
- The three day fast that is carried out every month,
c. Makruh Fasts
It is makruh to fast on these days:
- To fast on every qamari months full moon days, in other words to fast on the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth day of the month,
- The six day Shawwal fast that is close in time to Eid Al-Fitr,
d. Haram Fasts
It is haram to fast on these days:
- It is haram to fast for one day on Ramadhan eid, four days on Eid Al-Adha and on tashrik days,
- For the woman who is menstruating and who has recently given birth,
- The fasting of the person who has a risk of death if they fast.
Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications