Things That Break And Do Not Break Fasting (Maliki)

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What are the things that invalidate the fast? What are the things that do not invalidate the fast?

a. Situations in Where the Qaza and Kafarat are Required when the Fast is Broken

In the situations below, the fasting person is required to carry out the qaza and kafarat.

  • Engaging in sexual relations while fasting in Ramadhan,
  • Intentionally taking out semen out of oneself when fasting,
  • To revoke the intention of fasting during the day or night,
  • To intentionally consume something that is hard or liquid that will break the fast,
  • Trying to vomit.
  • To intentionally eat or drink something that is edible during Ramadhan while fasting.

The kafarat of fasting-dependent on the persons choice-is one of these three things:

  1. To feed sixty poor people: For each poor person, using the measurement that was used in the time of the Prophet (p.b.u.h), it is needed to give a mud amount of food.
  2. To fast for two months in accordance with the moon calendar. At the time of this fasting, if the person intentionally does not fast for one of the days, the fasts carried out as kafarat up till then will be invalid. They will need to start again.
  3. To free a Muslim slave,

b. Situations In Where Only Qaza is Needed When The Fast Has been Broken

The fast will be broken in the situations below. The qaza will be neeed to be carried out later in order to make up for it:

  • Eating and drinking when one has forgotten they are fasting,
  • Unintentionally ingesting water when having the wudhu etc. ,
  • Having to eat or drink something becauses of being threatened or forced to do so by someone,
  • Continuing to eat and drink with the thought that the fast is broken after eating or drinking due to forgetting or being threatened by someone,
  • Even though the person returned from their journey before the morning, the person eating and drinking because they thought it is mubah to not fast on that day,
  • To eat and drink when the person thinks its mubah to not fast when they are in a state of janabah in the morning and can not bathe before dawn.

c. Things That Do Not Break The Fast

  • Involuntarily vomiting,
  • For a fly to enter ones mouth,
  • Dust from the road entering ones mouth,
  • When flour enters the mouth of the miller, baker etc.
  • For medicine to be applied to the mans sexual organ,
  • To apply liquid medicine to a sore that is on the stomach or chest area,
  • To clean the teeth with the miswak,
  • For the thirsty person to gargle their mouth with water,
  • To be in a state of janabah.

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

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