The Rukuns of Hajj (Maliki)

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What are the rukuns of hajj?

1. Ihram

The ihram is a rukun of hajj. Ihram means to intend to perform the hajj, umrah or both of these ibadahs together. The ihram has limitations in terms of time and location. The limit to the ihram in terms of time; it starts from the first night of Eid Al-Fitr and continues up to the the fajr waqt of Eid Al-Adha. The limits to the ihram in terms of location have already been mentioned above.

The Wajibs of the Ihram

Besides the topic of hajj, according to the Malikis, the terms ‘’hajj’’ and ‘’wajib’’ are used in the same meaning. As for he topic of hajj, the fardh is a rukun of hajj. As in if there is no fardh, the hajj will not happen. When the fardh is not implemented, the hajj will be considered batil. It is haram to not implement the wajib in normal circumstances but if this is not implemented in the ibadah of hajj, the hajj will not be spoiled. It can be made up for by the slaughtering of the qurban.

These are the wajibs of the ihram:

  1. For the man to take off all clothes that he is wearing that covers the body and that has stitches,
  2. For the man to leave his head uncovered and to take off his watch and ring,
  3. For the woman to leave her face and hands uncovered: The woman may wear all clothes that cover her body and are stitched; however she can not wear a niqab (face veil) and gloves. As long as there is no fitnah, it is considered haram for her to cover her face.
  4. To recite the talbiya,
  5. To carry out the talbiya and ihram together and to continue in this state until the starting of the tawaf, afterwards continuing this until the place of salat in Arafat is reached. As for the person performing umrah, they will recite the talbiya from miqat up and continue up until they reach the haram area.

The Sunnahs of the Ihram

These are the sunnahs of the ihram:

  1. To have ghusl contiguously to the ihram. It is mandub to cut the nails, trim the moustache, to shave the hairs of the pubic and underarm area, to brush the hair before having the ghusl for the ihram. The woman who is menstruating or is within the period after chilbirth also washes herself for the ihram and implements all of the actions related to the hajj except making the tawaf around the Kabah. She can enter the Masjid Haram after she has cleaned herself and had ghusl.
  2. To wear the izar, ridha and clogs. It will be sufficient if the person covers their whole body with the one piece of clothing but this will have acted against the practice of the sunnah.
  3. To pray two rakats of salat after bathing but before going into the ihram.

Prohibitions related to the Ihram

There are actions and behaviour that is forbidden for the people who go into the ihram. They must refrain from these forbidden actions up until they are out of the ihram. These are called ‘’prohibitions of the ihram’’.

  1. Sexual intercourse and actions that lead to this,
  2. To put on pleasant scents,
  3. To cut the nails, to cut the hair,
  4. To harm land animals or their eggs.

Things that are not Forbidden for the Person in Ihram

  1. To carry something on the head, as long as its not for trade purposes,
  2. To wear the belt in order to maintain their nafaqa. The belt must be touching the persons skin.
  3. To change or wash their clothing,
  4. To stay in the shade of things like building, trees, rooves etc,
  5. To protect themselves from the sun and wind using their hands but without connecting their hand to their body.

2. To Make The Sa’y Between Safa And Marwa

The sa’y between Safa and Marwa is seven shawts (circuits), it starts at Safa and ends at Marwa. The way in which the start is considered one shawt, the return is also considered one shawt.

In order for the sa’y to be sahih, it must take place and be carried out in the sahih manner after the tawaf that is fardh or nafilah. However for the people who are performing the ifrad or qiran hajj, it must be carried out after the wajib tawaf just like the qudum tawaf. Otherwise, it must be delayed to after the ifada tawaf. Again if there is a circumstance that prevents the person from carrying out the qudum tawaf such as illness, menstruation etc, the necessity of the implementation of the qudum tawaf will be removed.

The person who is performing the tamattu hajj, will delay carrying out the sa’y to after the ifada tawaf which is a rukun.

These are the sunnahs of the sa’y:

  1. To kiss the Hajarul Aswad before going out for the sa’y,
  2. For men to climb the Safa and Marwa, for the women to also climb if they are not occupied,
  3. To walk hastily between the two green pillars,
  4. To make dua at Safa and Marwa.

It is mandub to drink alot of Zamzam water with a pleasant intention before starting the sa’y.

It is wajib to stop at Muzdalifa for as long a time it takes to pray the salat and eat food, all the while allowing the riding animals to sit down. It is mustahab to spend the night there. It is mandub to make the wuquf at Meshar’ul Haram by facing the qiblah, to recite lots of dhikr, dua and salawat.

After the sun has risen, the person who is performing the hajj will throw seven stones at the jamratul aqabah while they are walking or riding on an animal, they will recite the takbir after throwing each one of them and they will do this back to back. Tahallul asghar will take place with the throwing of the stones at jamratul aqabah; as in the prohibitions of the ihram except sexual intercourse and hunting will come to an end for the hajj candidate. If they have already done the sa’y, it will be makruh for them to put on pleasant scents up until they carry out the ifada tawaf.

It is needed for the head to be shaved or for the hair to be trimmed. The person who has the hady qurban next to them will slaughter this. Altough it is sufficient for the men to trim their hair, it is considered more virtuous for them to shave it. It is sunnah for women to cut off about the length of a finger from the tips of their hair.

3. To Be Found in Arafat

It is a rukun of hajj to be found in Arafat in whatever which way on the night of Eid Al-Adha and it does not matter in which area of Arafat. When being found in Arafat, it is required of the person to wait without motion for the length of time it takes for one to sit between two sujuds.

To make the wuquf in the afternoon on the day of Arafa is wajib, its not a rukun. If it is not done, it can be made up for by slaughtering a qurban.

The sunnah of the wuquf in Arafat are these:

  1. In the afternoon, for the imam to read two khutbas in the masjid of Arafat and to teach the people about actions/duties concerning hajj,
  2. To pray the zuhr and asr salats by joining them in the jam way-except for the community that lives in Arafat. Firstly the adhan is read for the zuhr salat, the adhan for the asr salat after this is finished, afterwards the salats are performed by being joined together. Afterwards the person will go to rahmah mountain and make dua in a state of humility until the sun sets. Afterwards the people will head to Muzdalifa with the imam. When they have reached Muzdalifa, they will perform the maghrib and isha salats in the jam takhir way by joining the salats, the isha salat will be shortened.

4. To Carry Out The Ifada Tawaf

The ifada tawaf is carried out by walking around the Kabah seven times. The time of this starts with the rising of the sun on the day of eid. Before this, it is needed of the person to stone the jamratul aqabah (big shaitan).

The Required Conditions for the IfadaTawaf to be considered Sahih

  1. a) To be cleaned of hadas and najasat,
  2. b) To cover the private parts,
  3. c) To position the Kabah to the left side while carrying out the tawaf,
  4. d) To carry out the tawaf inside of the Masjidul Haram,
  5. e) To make the tawafs back to back without giving many breaks in between,
  6. f) For the whole of the body to be outside of the shadervan and the Hijr area. Shadervan surrounds the base of the Kabah and the length of its protrusion is a little bit above the ground.

The Wajibs of the İfada Tawaf

  1. a) To start from the Hajarul Aswad for each shawt,
  2. b) For the person who is able to walk to make the tawaf by walking.

The Sunnahs of the Ifada Tawaf

  1. a) To silently kiss the Hajarul Aswad when starting the tawaf. If they are unable to do this they put their hand on the Hajarul Aswad and kiss their hand. If they can not also do this, they may touch it with a stick and kiss the stick. If they also can not do this, they may point at it and recite the takbir.
  2. b) To touch the rukn yemani.
  3. c) For the people who are going into ihram from miqat to make ramal in the first three shawts of the tawaf.

When the person does the ifada tawaf, all the prohibitions including sexual intercours, hunting and putting on pleasant scents are removed. This is called tahallul akbar.

The Mandubs of the Ifada Tawaf

  1. a) To make the twafa with the ihram clothing,
  2. b) To make the tawaf as soon as the hair is cut.

Types of Tawaf

  1. The Umrah Tawaf: The tawaf in where the first four shawts are the rukuns of umrah and it is carried out with the ihram. Its implementation is fardh for the people who are performing the umrah.
  2. The qudum tawaf: It is the first tawaf that is carried out with the ihram by those that come from other countries. It is sunnah to do this.
  3. The ifada tawaf: It is made after returning from Arafat and it is a tawaf that is a rukun of hajj.
  4. The wada tawaf: It is the last tawaf that is made before leaving Makkah after stoning the shaitan in Mina. It is mandub for the afakis who come from outside of Makkah to do this tawaf
  1. The tatawwu (nafilah) tawaf: It is the tawaf that is occasionally carried out by the Muslims who are found in Makkah. It is considered more virtuous for the people who have come from outside of Makkah to do this tawaf than to perform the nafilah salat. Because these people can not always find the time for this.

F. The Order of The Things to Do on The Day of Eid

The duties that are needed to be carried out on the day of Eid Al-Adha, are carried out in this order:

  1. a) The stoning of jamratul aqabah,
  2. b) The slaughtering of the qurban,
  3. c) Shaving or cutting the hair,
  4. d) The ifada tawaf,

It is wajib to carry out the stoning before getting shaved and before doing the ifada tawaf. When this is not done, this can be made up for by slaughtering the qurban.

If the person cuts the qurban before the stoning or if they carry out the ifada tawaf before cutting the qurban or getting shaved or even both, if they get their hair shaved before cutting the qurban, no punishment is required.

It is wajib for the hajjis to return to Mina after the ifada tawaf. They will stay here for three days if they are not in a hurry to return to Makkah, two days if they are in a hurry. When they return to Mina, it is wajib for them to throw seven rocks each at the big, medium-sized and small shaitan in the afternoon. The waqt of stoning will continue up to the setting of the sun. It is a mistake to do the stoning at night.

In order for the stoning to be considered sahih the thing that is thrown must be a stone, for there to be seven stones, each of the stones must be thrown separately, the stoning of the three shaitans must be carried out in order. It is considered mandub to throw the stones with the right hand, to recite the takbir when throwing each stone, to not give a break when throwing the seven stones, to read enough duas for the amount of time it would take to read Surat Baqarah after throwing stones at the big and medium-sized shaitans.

It is mandub to carry out the wada tawaf after finishing the duties of hajj.

It is needed for the stoning of jamratul aqabah to be carried out before the shaving and the ifada tawaf; if they carry it out before any one of these two, the qurban must be slaughtered.

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

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