What is islamic shool in islam?
The period in which the legal understanding of the school of Islamic law was followed begins with the stagnation period of Abbasids that commenced in 350 AH / 960 CE. This period continued up to the years 1284 AH / 1868 CE when the Majalla started to be written.
The noteworthy characteristics of this era in terms of fiqh are as follows:
1- There was an increase in imitation of the views of the schools of Islamic law and decrease in the activities of independent reasoning. Muslim jurists contended themselves with the imitation of the already existing views of the earlier scholars. The scholars of this period even stopped the activities of juristic opinion and ijtihad based on a claim that the gates of ijtihad were closed.
2- A particular madhhab was chosen and followed. The adherence of government leaders to a certain madhhab played an important role in the appointment of judges from among the scholars of the adopted madhhab.
3- Having issued rulings about all subject matters in the earlier periods decreased the need for deepening in the knowledge and Ijtihad lost its significance and support among the people and governments.
4- Scholars of fiqh summarized the vague expressions in texts in understandable forms. Basic texts were interpreted and textual commentaries started to emerge.
5- Fatwa books were compiled. Solutions to new issues were looked for in these fatwa books.
The Important Books of Madhhabs:
There are some significant books which have come down to us from the period of following the legal understandings of the schools of Islamic law. Some of the famous books of the schools of Islamic law are as follows:
Hanafi School: al-Sarakhsi “Mabsut”; al-Kasani “al-Badayi al-Sanayi’; al-Marghinani “al-Hidaya”; Ibn al-Humam “Fath al-Qadir”; Ibn Nujaym “al-Bahr al-Raiq”; Ibn Abidin “Radd al-Mukhtar”
Maliki School: Asad b. Furat “al-Mudawwana”; Ibn Rushd “Bidayat al-mujtahid”; al-Qarafi “al-Furuq”
Shafi’i School: al-Nawawi “al-Majmu’”; al-Shirbini “Mughni al-Muhtaj”; al-Shirazi “al-Muhazzab”; al-Muzani “Mukhtasar”
Hanbali School: Ibn Qudama “al-Mughni; al-Buhuti “Kashshaf al-Qina”; Ibn Taymiyya “al-Fatawa”
Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Shafi’i School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications