What is the fitr sadaqa? What is the definition of fitr sadaqa?
a. The Definition of Fitr Sadaqa and its Place in our Religion
The sadaqa that is given as a symbol of gratitude towards being able to benefit from the reward and barakat of Ramadhan is called fitr.
The fitr sadaqa was made wajib in the second year of the Hijrah.
Our Prophet peace be upon him, has stated in regards to this sadaqa: “The fitr sadaqa cleans the sin of the one who is fasting of negative words he mistakingly said, and it will be food for the poor.”
b. The Nisab of the Fitr Sadaqa
The nisab of this sadaqa, means the remaining wealth left over after one has met the eating requirements of himself and those who he is responsible for taking care of.
The person who carries these requirements is responsible for paying for the fitr sadaqa of himself and those whose nafaqa he is responsible for maintaining; a free person or slave, child or adult, men and women Muslims. For example one must pay the zakat for those he is responsible for maintaining the nafaqa of; his childrens, mother-fathers, his slaves, his wifes and the wife’s slave.
If a small child has property of their own, the fitre will be given from that. If the older child needs to be taken care of, the father will pay the fitr for them.
c. From what is the Fitr Sadaqa given?
In the time of our Prophet, the fitr sadaqa was given from what was always found on the market. This was; wheat, barley, dry dates, dry grapes, dried curd, rice and a sa’ from maize (close to 3kgs).
If there are other staple foods found in the area the person is living, then the fitr sadaqa is given from them.
d. Who is the Fitr Sadaqa given to?
The fitr sadaqa is given with the intention of fitr to every Muslim who is poor. However within this group it is wise to give priority to the most needy, close relatives, close neighbors. When giving the fitr sadaqa it may be preferred to give it to families with children who can not meet their needs for eid, to students and to needy people.
In the way it is jaiz to give a sa’ amount to more than one poor person, it is also jaiz to give one poor person more than one sa’ amount of fitr.
A person can not give fitr to their; mother, father, grandfather, grandmother, children, grandchildren, spouse and others they are responsible for looking after. It is makruh to give the fitr to someone who is far away when there is a needy person close by.
e. When is the Fitr Sadaqa given?
It is considered mustahab to give the fitr on the morning of Eid Al-Fitr, after the sun has risen and before going to the mosque. But it is jaiz to give it after this time as well. At the same time it is jaiz to give it two days before eid.
 Ash-Shawkani, Neylu’l-Awtar, II, 406.
Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications