What is Jumah? What are the fazilah and hikmah of jumah?
The Jum’ah salat was made fard when Hazrat Muhammad was at the Ranuna Valley closeby to Madinah at the time of His hijrat to Madinah. And the first Jum’ah khutba was read there in the Bani Salim Masjid.
Islam has always encouraged Muslims to pray altogether in a congregation. For some of them to be able to be carried out, the congregation (jama’ah) has been put forth as a precondition.
The Jum’ah prayer is fard for all Muslim men who carry the required qualities. When the adhan is read, it is required for all those who are responisble with praying the Jum’ah salat to leave whatever they are occupied with and quickly go to the mosque.
When Muslims hear the muadhin reading the Jum’ah adhan, they obey Allah’s order;
“O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew.”
Our Prophet has stated the following concerning those who pray the Jum’ah prayer: “If anyone performs wudhu properly, then comes to the Friday prayer, listens to the khutba attentively and keeps silent, his (minor) sins between that Friday and the following Friday will be forgiven, with the addition of three more days.”
Jum’ah is the weekly religious festival of the Muslim community. With this reason “Nabi alayhissalam has forbidden fasting on the day of Jum’ah!”.
It is considered mustahab to show great care for the Jum’ah prayer, to bathe and clean oneself, to cut the nails, to brush the teeth, to put on sweet fragrances, to where pleasant and clean clothes to the mosque. Abu Said-i Hudri (r.a) has said the following;
I witness that Rasulallah –peace be upon him-has ordered: “It is like wajib for every person who has reached puberty to have the ghusl and if possible use the miswak and cover oneself with pleasant fragrances on the day of Jum’ah.”
 Surat Jum’ah, Ayah 9
 Muslim, Jum’ah, 8
 Bukhari, sawm 63; Muslim, siyam 145, 146
 Bukhari, jum’ah 4,6; Muslim juma 10,26.