What is the contents of fiqh as a science? What is the contents of maliki fiqh?
Islam can be divided into three categories; faith, practice and morals. Every category has a branch of Islamic science dedicated to it, for example fiqh for practices, tasawwuf for morals etc. Fiqh is concerned with the actions (commands and prohibitions) of a person. The basic contents of fiqh are:
- The relationship between a person and Allah (‘Ibadat)
- Purity (Taharah): (Wudu’, Ghusl, Tayammum, Special circumstances of women, Types of najasah etc.)
- Physical acts of worship: Salat, Sawm (fasting), I’tikaf.
- Acts of worship carried out with one’s money: Zakat, Fitrah, Qurban.
- Physical – Material acts of worship: Hajj, ‘Umrah
- Vows and Oaths
- Relations with other people (Mu’amalat)
- Rulings within the family (Munakahat, Mufaraqat): Rulings regarding engagement and marriage, Marriage law, divorce, nafaqa, ‘iddah, mahr etc.
- Rulings regarding inheritance and heirs (Faraid and wasiyyah)
- Rulings related to financial matters: Buying-selling, rent, corporation, bonding suretyship, referral (money order etc), guarantee etc,
- Justice: Adjudication, case, witnesses, oaths, declarations etc
- Rulings regarding relations between nations (Sira): Principles of war, peace, Rights of non-muslims in Muslim countries etc.
- Rulings regarding Sanctions (‘Uqubat)
- Punishment for murder or injury of others (Jinayat): Qisas, diyyah etc.
- Hudood: Punishments for; theft, zina, consuming alcohol, apostasy etc.
The Aim of Fiqh
The specific aim of fiqh, is to teach the relevant religious rulings to man, along with their sources. Its general aim however; is to teach a Muslim his religious obligations, and to inform him of what makes up happiness in this world and the here-after.