Najasah And Hadath

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What is nasajah? What is hadath in islam?

I. Definition of Najasah and its types

Najasah can be divided into many parts. Faeces, animal manure, all classified as solid najasah and other impurities such as urine and alcohol are considered fluid najasah. In terms of whether or not they are an obstacle for prayer, they are divided into two parts, known as minor and major najasah.

Najasah that is still visible when dry (such as blood) is called “mar’iyah” and impurities that are not visible when dry (such as urine and dirty water) are called “ghayr mar’iyah.” Both types are also divided into two categories in terms of making the prayers valid or invalid.

II. Things that are pure and those that are impure

All of Allah’s creation, in its essence, is pure. All elements on earth along with their particles are pure. Impurity is external and temporary.

Purities can be divided into five types:

  1. All living creatures, just as they are clean, so too are there tears, saliva, eggs and perspiration.
  2. A human corpse,
  3. Dead insects or pests that have no blood,
  4. Dead sea animals,
  5. Left overs of lawful animals.

There are five types of impure things:

  1. A human’s urine or faeces,
  2. Mani (Semen), Mazi (fluid with arousal), Wadi (post-urination fluid) ,
  3. The urine or faeces of a non-edible (unlawful) animal,
  4. Flowing blood,
  5. Dead bodies excluding that of the human’s.

An impure thing may be used in the following ways under certain circumstances:

  1. After the skin of an impure animal is removed and processed (tanning),
  2. Using the manure of animals for planting trees, crops or plants,
  3. A person dying of hunger may eat an impure animal to stay alive,
  4. A person who is in a severe condition whereby he or she must drink any fluids may drink alcohol if it is the only available thing, in order to overcome the danger. Alcohol may not be used for medicinal purposes.

A dead animal’s flesh may be given to dogs, likewise impure water may be used to water crops.

III. The Amount of Impurity that invalidates the prayer

Before standing for prayer, a person must have cleansed their body, wear clean clothing, and choose a clean place to pray. This is a prerequisite for prayer.

If a person performs prayer without having cleansed himself purposely or due to being unaware of the rulings of cleanliness, he must repeat the prayer, as it is invalid. For a person who is unable to purify himself or has forgotten that he bears an impurity should repeat the prayer if the time of prayer has not passed, however if it has expired he is not obliged to repeat it.

The following impurities do not invalidate the prayer:

  1. A dirham’s size of human or animal blood, urine or vomit,
  2. Urine or stool landing on the breastfeeding mother from the child that she is feeding, -although she had taken precautions to avoid it-
  3. Urine incontinence (leaking), wetness due to bowel disorders (hemorrhoids), pus or inflammation of a pimple that has not been squeezed,
  4. Impurities that have inevitably emanated onto workers such as butchers, garbage collectors etc due to their profession, no matter how hard they try to avoid it,
  5. Impurities of horses or cattle on the clothes of those who breed and care for them,

Islam is a religion that regards cleanliness as a crucial concept, and commands every Muslim to be pedantically clean. Although impurities of the amount stated above do not invalidate the prayer, it is still strictly recommended that a person stands for prayer with clean garments.

Since a Muslim should present an example to others with his behaviour, he must be especially clean and tidy.

IV. Water for Purification

Just as water is important for cleansing, it is important that the water used is pure and free of impurities.

Water, in terms of its use in purification, is divided into these parts:

  1. Mutlaq(Absolute) Water

Mutlaq water is pure water whose smell, taste or colour have not been altered by external factors.  Water from the sea, wells, hail and rain are examples. This type of water may be used for ritual purification before worship and other purposes.

  1. Changed water (Used)

Changed water is divided into two parts with regards to what has been mixed into the water causing it to be changed:

  1. a) Water mixed with pure elements: This type may be used for ritual purification along with other daily uses.
  2. b) Water mixed with impurities: This type of water may not be used for purification or any other use.
  3. Makruh Water:

While alternative water exists, using the following is makruh:

  1. a) Water whose essence has not been altered yet it has been mixed with a small amount of impurity (najasah),
  2. b) Water that has been used for ritual purification before; wudu or ghusl,
  3. c) Water in which a person who has drank wine has placed his hand or mixed leftovers from his wine with,
  4. d) Water in a container or similar thing placed under the sun,
  5. e) Water that a dog has contacted with his tongue,
  6. f) Leftover water of a cat or similar animal.

V. Etiquette of the Toilet

Upon entering the toilet we should say Bismillah and recite the following:

“O Allah, I seek refuge in You from impurity and the impure.”[1]  Then we enter the toilet with our left foot first.

If a person is wearing any jewellery or accessories that contain Allah’s name or verses from the Qur’an should leave it outside before entering. We must avoid mentioning Allah’s name in the toilet.

Trying not to splatter any of the urine or get impurities on oneself. This is why it is advised to sit while urinating or defecating, and not standing up without a valid excuse.

One should sit on the toilet without facing or turning his back directly to the qiblah.

It is a makruh act to urinate or defecate towards the wind, in running or stagnant water, in insect holes, on places where people sit, use or pass by.

Cleansing the private parts after urination and defecation is called istinja. After finishing one’s business, washing the private parts thoroughly with water, then drying it with toilet paper is the most effective way of cleansing in the toilet. Wiping with toilet paper without using water is considered makruh. When water is not available, performing istinja with clean and dry objects such as leaves, rocks etc is permitted. However these objects may not be edible things but must be things that are able to thoroughly clean the impurity.

If the najasah has spread or splattered too much in the area of release, performing istinja is fard.

Ensuring that the last trace of urine has been released (for men) after urinating is called istibra. This may be supported by coughing, walking or leaning on the left side. Men should be sure that the last drop of urine has come out before taking wudu’.

Rasulullah (p.b.u.h) while passing between two graves has said: “They (their occupants) are being tormented, but they are not tormented for a grievous sin. One of them carried tales (created enmity between people) and the other did not keep himself safe from being defiled by urine (istibra)”[2] And in another hadith: “Avoid soiling (oneself) with urine, as it is one of the reasons for torment in the grave.”[3] Thus he has pointed out the importance of istibra and istinja.

The cleansing process in istibra and istinja is carried out by the left hand. The Prophet has said: “One who is cleansing his private parts (in the toilet) should use his left hand and not his right hand”[4]

One should leave the toilet with his right foot first.

And on leaving, he should say: “Alhamdulillahilladhi adh-haba ‘anni ma yu’thini wa amsaka ‘alayya ma yanfa’uni” or alternatively he may say “Ghufranaka”

“All Praise be to Allah, who removed the difficulty from me and gave me ease (relief) and benefit”[5]

VI. The Definition of Hadath and its divisions
Hadath, as a dictionary term means; to happen, to come about, recent. In context, it means the state of legal impurity that one must get rid of to be able to perform certain acts of worship. Hadath can be divided into two parts:

  • Minor Hadath: The occurrence of anything that invalidates the wudu’ is a state of minor hadath. It can be rid of by performing wudu’.
  • Major Hadath: The state after sexual intercourse or emission of discharge (for both men and women), and menstruation or post-partum bleeding of a woman. Performing ghusl is required in this state to reach purity.

[1] Abu Dawud, Tahârah 3[2] Buhari, Wudu 55, 56; Muslim, Taharah 111[3] İbn Maja, Taharah 26[4] Buhari, Wudu 18; İbn Maja, Taharah 15[5] İbn Maja, Taharah 10

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

The Contents of Fiqh as a Science (Maliki)

The Importance of The Science of Fiqh (Shafii)

 

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