How to perform hajj in islam? How to perform umrah in islam?
Since hajj al-ifrad is the most virtuous type of hajj according to Shafii School, we would like to offer information about how to perform it.
The rites of hajj and umrah begins by entering the state of ihram. One clips the nails, cleans the underarm and pubic hairs, and have hair, beard, and moustache cut if necessary. If it is possible, one performs major or minor ablution. Major ablution is preferable.
The recommended major ablutions in hajj are as follows:
- a) When entering the state of ihram,
- b) When entering the Haram area,
- c) When entering Mecca even when one is not in the state of ihram,
- d) When beginning the waqfa in the Plain of Arafat,
- e) Before performing waqfa in Muzdalifah near the place called Mashar al-Haram on the first day of festival after dawn,
- f) When going to stoning the jamarat after the sun passes the meridian on the second, third and fourth days of the festival,
- g) When entering Medina.
Men remove all their clothes after the major ablution and put instead on two pieces of ihram sheets called izar and rida in accordance with a certain way. They wear nice scents. They keep their head uncovered and foot bare. They are allowed to wear sandals with open heels and preferably open-top. Women do not change their daily clothes. It is permissible for them to wear all kinds of clothes, shoes covering their feet, and socks, except it is not permissible to cover their hands and face.
If it is not a reprehensible time, the pilgrim should perform a two-cycle prayer in his home before setting out on the journey and after he returns to his home. He recites the following supplication after the prayer he performs before setting out on the pilgrimage journey:
“O Allah! I have turned to. I have hold on to You and trusted in You. O Allah! You are my strength and You are my hope. O Allah! Grant me my needs that You know better in things that are important and not important for me. Your protection is strong. There is no god but You. O Allah! Bless me with piety, forgive my sins. Turn me towards the good wherever I turn. I seek refuge with You from from the hardships of journey, difficulties of traveling around, insufficiencies after abundance, letting my family and my property fall into plights.”
In order to perform hajj al-ifrad, one enters the state of ihram in the place of miqat first with the intention to perform hajj by saying, “Nawaytu al-hajja wa ahramtu bihi lillahi taala. Labbayk allahumma labbayk. Labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Inna al-hamda wa al-ni’mata laka wa al-mulk. La sharika lak.” (I intend to perform hajj and umrah and enter the state of ihram for it for the sake of Allah Almighty. Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.)
After making the intention, the pilgrim begins to chant talbiya. The pilgrim recites talbiya after the ritual prayers, when meeting a group, going up to high ground, or going down to a valley, waking up from sleep, and at times of dawn. Below is the supplication of talbiya:
Which means, “Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.”
It is recommended for the pilgrim to enter Mecca in the morning. After settling into the place where the pilgrim will stay, he performs the major ablution if possible, or minor ablution if it is not. He then goes to Masjid al-Haram by chanting talbiyas. In order to show reverence to the Ka’bah, the pilgrim should try to enter from Bab al-Mualla located at the upper side of Mecca, which will make him face the Ka’bah. It is recommended to enter Masjid al-Haram from the gate of Bani Shayba if one enters it in the morning. One should chant talbiyas, and be in a state of humility and awe when entering the masjid. When the pilgrim sees the Ka’bah for the first time, he should raise his hands and say “la ilaha illa Allah” and recite the following supplication:
“O Allah! Increase this house in honor, and reverence, and respect and awe. And whosoever venerates and honors this house, coming to it for Hajj or Umrah, increase (him/her) in position, respect, honor and righteousness. O Allah! You are peace and peace comes from You. O Lord! Let us live in peace.”
After reciting the above mentioned supplication, the pilgrim who enters Masjid al-Haram circumambulates around the Ka’bah as long as an obligatory prayer is not being performed. Those who are not Meccan residents perform tawaf al-qudum.
After that the pilgrim performs two-cycle Tawaf Prayer behind the Station of Abraham (Maqam Ibrahim) if there is an available place, if there is not then any available place is suitable. Afterwards, the pilgrim invokes Allah and drinks from the Zam Zam water by turning towards the qiblah and saying the following supplication:
“O Allah, I seek beneficial knowledge, wide sustenance and cure from all ailments from You.”
The pilgrim then goes to the Hill of Safa and performs the sa’y. When the pilgrim sees the Ka’bah, he says the following prayer no matter if he is on the Hill of Safa or not:
“Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest. For Allah is all praise. All praise be for Allah, Who has guided us. All praise be for Allah, Who has befriended us. There is none worthy of worship besides Allah, who is alone and has no partner (equal). For Him is sovereignty and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death, and He has power over everything. There is none worthy of worship but Allah, who is alone, who has helped His servant, and who single-handedly has destroyed nations. There is none worthy of worship besides Allah, who we worship none besides, sincerely in faith, be it to the dislike of the apostates.”
After this invocation, the person who performs sa’y says other supplications.
Four circuits is done from the Hill of Safa to the Hill of Marwa and three circuits from Marwa to Safa. The seven-circuit sa’y ends at the Hill of Marwa. Men walk briskly (called harwala) between the two green pillars.
After completing sa’y, the pilgrim stays in Mecca and performs tawaf around the Ka’bah at every opportunity.
The rites of hajj are performed intensively in six days between the 8th and the 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah. The summary of the rites of hajj performed in these days is as follows:
Day of Tarwiya (8th Dhu al-Hijjah): On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, after Dawn Prayer, the pilgrims move from Mecca to Mina or the Plain of Arafat. It is a Sunnah to spend the day in Mina, to perform a total of five daily prayers beginning from the Noon Prayer of the Day of Tarwiya until the Dawn Prayer of the next day, and then to go to the Plain of Arafat after performing the Dawn Prayer on the 9th Dhu al-Hijjah.
Day of Arafa (the Eve of Festival of Sacrifice) (9th Dhu al-Hijjah): In the Plain of Arafat, pilgrims spend their time with acts of worship before noon in their tents. After the time for the Noon Prayer arrives they perform major ablution if possible. After they have performed the Noon and the Late Afternoon Prayers together during the time of Noon Prayer, they begin to perform waqfa (ritual standing / staying) in the Plain of Arafat. They utilize the day with acts of worship such as saying takbirs, remembrances of Allah, talbiya, recitation of the Qur’an, supererogatory prayers, repentance, etc. Allah’s Messenger said, “The past sins of one who protects his eyes, ears, and tongue from sins today will be forgiven.”
One may recite the following invocations during the waqfa in the Plain of Arafat:
“There is none worthy of worship besides Allah, He is all by Himself, He has no partner, His is the Kingdom, for Him is all praise, He has power over all things. O Allah, make light in my heart, in my ears light and in my eyes light. O Allah open my chest (bosom), make my tasks easy. O Allah, to You belongs all praise, as we praise You and better than that.”
“Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the chastisement of the fire. O Allah, I have greatly wronged myself and no one forgives sins but You. So, grant me forgiveness and have mercy on me. Surely, you are Forgiving, Merciful!”
“O Allah! Deliver me from the humiliation of sin to the dignity of obedience. Suffice me with what You have allowed instead of what You have forbidden; and make me independent of all others besides You by Your favor. Lighten my heart and my grave and guide me to the straight way. Protect me from all kinds of evil. And bring me all good. O Allah! I ask from You to guide me to the right path, to keep me away from Your prohibitions, to make me a content and chaste person.”
After the sun sets, the pilgrims begin to go from the Plain of Arafat to Muzdalifa before the performance of the Evening Prayer. The Evening and the Night Prayers are performed in combined form during the time of the Night Prayer in Muzdalifa. The night of the festival day is spend there with acts of worship and rest. The pilgrims collect ample pebbles to throw during the stoning of the devil.
The First Day of Festival (Yawm al-Nahr; 10th Dhu al-Hijjah):
- a) When its time comes, the Dawn Prayer is performed in Muzdalifa. After Dawn Prayer, the pilgrims perform waqfa (ritual standing / staying) in Muzdalifa until the day breaks. The pilgrims spend their time in waqfa by doing invocations, repentance, and remembrances of Allah. When the day breaks, pilgrims move to Mina before the sunrise.
- b) After settling into the tents in Mina, the pilgrims go to Jamrat al-Aqaba to stone the devil. The pilgrim throws seven pebbles by saying when throwing each one of them “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, raghman li al-shaytani wa hizbih”. As soon as the first pebble is thrown, pilgrims stop chanting the talbiya and they do not chant talbiya afterwards any more.
- c) After that, the pilgrims sacrifice their qurbans in Haram area. It is wajib (necessary) to sacrifice a thanksgiving qurban to those who perform tamattu and qiran types of hajj. For those who perform hajj al-ifrad it is not a must to sacrifice a qurban, but if they wish, they can voluntarily sacrifice an animal.
- d) Those who perform hajj al-ifrad have their hair cut and are released from the state of ihram after stoning jamrat al-aqaba, while those who perform hajj al-tamattu or hajj al-qiran have their hair cut and are released from the state of ihram after sacrificing their qurbans. In this way, all prohibitions of the state of ihram except having sexual relation will be lifted. The prohibition of having sexual relation will be lifted only after performing tawaf al-ifada. The pilgrims may cut their own hair or have their hair cut by another person. It is permissible for a pilgrim who completes the rites of hajj and are ready to have their hair cut to cut other pilgrims’ hairs.
- e) If it is possible, the pilgrims go to Mecca to perform tawaf al-ifada on the same day. Those who have not performed sa’y after performing tawaf al-qudum perform sa’y after tawaf al-ifada. It is preferable to perform tawaf al-ifada on the first day of the festival.
- f) After performing the tawaf, the pilgrims return to Mina and spend the nights of the days stoning the jamarat in Mina.
The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Days of Festival (11, 12 wa13 Dhu al-Hijjah):
- a) On the second and third days of the festival after the sun passes the meridian, the pilgrims stone each one of the jamras (Little, the Middle and Aqaba) with seven pebbles. After stoning the little and the Middle jamras, the pilgrims retire to an available place and invoke Allah. After stoning the jamrat al-aqaba, the pilgrims do not wait to do an invocation but instead leave from there immediately. On these two days, jamras are not stoned before the sun passes the meridian.
- b) Those who intend not to stone the jamras on the fourth day have to leave Mina before dawn. Those who do not leave Mina on the fourth day before dawn have to throw seven pebbles at each of the jamrahs on that day. After throwing the pebbles on the fourth day, the pilgrims leave Mina and go to Mecca.
After completing the rites of hajj, the pilgrims enter the state of ihram for umrah in the Hill area in a place closest to the Haram area. The most virtuous miqat places for umrah is first Jirana, then Tanim, and then Hudaybiya.
Here is how one express his/her intention to perform umrah, “Nawaytu al-umrata wa ahramtu biha lillahi taala. Labbayk allahumma labbayk. Labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Inna al-hamda wa al-ni’mata laka wa al-mulk. La sharika lak.” (I intend to perform umrah and enter the state of ihram for it for the sake of Allah Almighty. Here I am, O Allah, here I am. Here I am, You have no partner, here I am. Verily all praise and blessings are Yours, and all sovereignty, You have no partner.)
One who would like to perform umrah makes his intention for umrah and then starts chanting talbiyahs. When he reaches Mecca, he circumambulates around the Ka’bah and then performs sa’y between the Hills of Safa and Marwa. After completing sa’y, he has his hair cut and is released from the state of ihram. In this way, he completes the umrah.
Those who come to Mecca from other places (afaqis) perform tawaf al-wada (farewell tawaf). In this way, hajj al-ifrad will be completed.
After performing tawaf al-wada, the pilgrim performs a two-cycle prayer just like our Prophet (pbuh) did. After that, he goes, if it is possible and does not cause a disturbance to other pilgrims, to the place called Multazam located between the Black Stone and the Gate of the Ka’bah. He reaches his right arm towards the gate of the Ka’bah and left arm towards the Black Stone and places his face towards the wall of the Ka’bah. In this position, he invokes Allah.
Regarding the way of invoking Allah at Multazam, the following is reported from ‘Amr b. Shuayb: “I circumambulated around the Ka’bah along with Abdullah ibn ‘Amr. When we came behind the Ka’bah I asked: ‘Do you not seek refuge?’ He uttered the words: ‘I seek refuge in Allah from the Hell-fire.’ He then went (further) and touched the Black Stone, and stood between the corner (Black Stone) and the entrance of the Ka’bah. He then placed his breast, his face, his hands and his palms in this manner, and he spread them, and said: ‘I saw the apostle of Allah (pbuh) doing like this.’”
After Multazam, the pilgrim goes to the place called Hatim, and he stays and prays under the Golden Gutter. After that, he drinks from the Zam Zam water and finally leaves the Ka’bah.
 Musnad, I, 329, 356
 Abu Dawud. Manasik, 55, II, 452