What are the conditions of the ritual prayer? What is the ritual prayer in islam? What are the 7 conditions of salat?
According to the Ḥanafis, some conditions must be fulfilled before starting the prayer which are as follows: 1) Cleansing from ḥadath (ṭaḥārah). 2) Cleansing from najāsāt. 3) Covering the private parts (satr al-awrah). 4) Turning towards the qibla (istiqbāl al-qibla). 5) The time, and finally, 6) the intention. These are called “the conditions of the prayer”.
There are six more obligatory acts that must be fulfilled after starting the prayer: 1) Takbīr al-iftitāḥ, 2) Qiyām, 3) Qirā’ah, 4) Rukūʿ, 5) Sajdah, and 6) Sitting at the end of the ritual prayer long enough to recite the supplication of taḥiyyāt. These are also called “Arkān aṣ-Ṣalāh”. As mentioned above, apart from these, there are other requirements with various terms based on the different interpretations of the schools, such as taʿdīl al-arkān and ending the prayer resolutely (khurūj bi ṣun’ihi). We will explain these further in the book.
At this junction, we will utilize the Ḥanafi school’s classification and first focus on the conditions of prayer and refer to the other schools’ differing views whenever needed.
1) Cleansing from Hadath (Taharah)
The state of people who do not have wuḍū for prayer, who is junub, menstruating, or postpartum bleeding, is called “ḥadath (ritual impurity)”. Among these ritual impurities, “cleansing from ḥadath” occurs when the person who is in the state of minor ritual impurity performs the minor ablution (wuḍū’) with water, and the person who is in the state of major ritual impurity performs the major ablution with water, or if there is no water available or cannot be utilized, tayammum is performed. The state of not being in the state of wuḍū is called minor ḥadath (minor ritual impurity), and those who are in the state of janābah or similar major ritual impurity are called major ḥadath (major ritual impurity). In addition to benefits such as cleansing, removing material impurities, and safeguarding physical health, the purification from such ritual impurities prepares a person to worship his Almighty Lord.
Allah Almighty says, “O you who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. … and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands…”
Moreover, the Prophet said, “The prayer of a person who does ḥadath (passes urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs wuḍū.”
It is necessary to be cleansed of the ḥadath for a complete prayer such as farḍ, wājib, sunnah, or supererogatory prayers or incomplete types of prayers such as prostration of recitation or gratitude. A prayer performed without being in the state of wuḍū is considered not valid.
If the minor ablution is invalidated for any reason while performing the prayer, the prayer is also invalidated. The Prophet (saw) said, “When any of you breaks wind during the prayer, he should leave the prayer and perform ablution and repeat the prayer.”
In their distinctive times, women are exempted from certain acts of worship such as ritual prayer and fasting. It is stated in the Qur’an that menstruation is a state of hardship and discomfort for women, and it is forbidden for men to have sexual intercourse with their spouses during such periods. Furthermore, the Prophet explained that women in such situations should not pray and fast, and then stated that they are only obliged to make up the fasts that they are unable to perform during this time. There was consensus among schools on these provisions and no contrary opinion has been put forward. Exemption of women from certain acts of worship such as prayer and fasting is not a “deprivation of rights”, but an “exemption from duty”. It is a convenience that religion provides in favor of women.
Like other conditions of the validity of the prayer, being purified from ḥadath is one such condition.
2) Cleansing from Najasat
Before commencing the prayer, one must cleanse the body, clothes, or the place where the prayer will be performed of the things that are considered unclean by Islam, such as blood, urine, and feces. This cleansing is a prerequisite for the prayer to be valid. If there is something ritually impure in solid forms, such as human feces, more than four grams (1 misqal) or in liquid forms such as blood, human urine, or wine, which spreads over an area larger than the palm of the hand, on the clothes or the place where the prayer is performed, on the feet, hands, and knees, and according to sound view on the place where the forehead is placed, the prayer is not considered valid. The prayer is not invalidated if the urine or feces of animals, whose meat can be eaten, or of horses, contaminates an area less than one-fourth of the body or clothing. This is considered excused because such impurities are cleaner than other types of impurities and there is complexity in evading such impurities. However, if there is more than that amount then it hinders the validity of the prayer since it is of such an abundance that it must be cleaned.
In a Qur’anic verse that was revealed in Mecca in the early days of Islam, it is commanded that “(O my Messenger!) And your garments keep free from stain!” Ibn Sirīn said that the command here is to clean the dirt away from the clothes with water. Again, in a verse that was revealed in the Meccan period, it is commanded to wear beautiful clothes during prayer. The cleanliness of the place of worship is a common value in all Abrahamic religions and is symbolized by the Ka’ba al-Mu’aẓẓamah. “…and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).” In the Qur’an, repentance and cleansing from sins and cleansing from material impurities are mentioned together, and it is stated that those who do these acts will gain the love of Allah. Again, the people of Qubā from Medina, whose cleanliness was demonstrated by the Prophet as an example to the Muslims, are praised as follows, “…In it are men who love to be purified; and Allah loves those who make themselves pure.”
When Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh (r. anha) asked about the ruling of the chronic bleeding (istiḥāḍa), the Prophet (saw) replied, “It is from a blood vessel and not the menses. So when the real menses begins give up your prayers and when it (the period) has finished wash the blood off your body (take a bath) and offer your prayers.” Regarding a Bedouin who urinated in the mosque, the Messenger of Allah (saw) ordered his offended Companions to leave him alone and instead pour a bucket or a tumbler of water over the place where the urine had fallen. 
The verses and hadiths above indicate that a believer should pay attention to the cleanliness of his body, clothing, and place of worship, especially when he or she is going to do acts of worship.
3) Satr al-Awrah (Covering the Body)
The awrah means the parts of the human body that are considered shameful or sinful to be seen by someone else. The parts that are considered awrah should be covered outside of prayers as well as during the prayer. According to all schools but Malikis, satr al-awrah is a condition of prayer. According to Malikis, it is a sunnah.
Although the word awrah has been used in two places in the Qur’an, close to its terminological meaning, the size and limits of awrah have not been determined in the Qur’an. The word “saw’a” in the Qur’an, in its narrowest sense, refers to the genitals of men and women. In the Qur’an, the effort of the first two human beings, Adam and Eve, to cover their shameful parts in Paradise is described as follows: “In the result, they both ate of the tree, and so their nakedness appeared to them: they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden: thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced.” This shows that covering the places of shame is a necessity of both the intellect and the creation.
In the Qur’an, men are asked to avoid adultery and protect their chastity. Women, on the other hand, are instructed not to reveal their ornaments in the presence of non-mahram men and to cover themselves with headscarves, as well as to wear their outer clothes.
In a verse that was revealed during the Meccan period, the manners of the mosque are mentioned as follows, “O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer…” According to Ibn Abbas (ra), what is meant in this verse is the clean clothes worn in prayer. Thus, the obligation of covering the private parts of the believers in worship such as prayer and circumambulating the Ka’ba has been prescribed. One year before the farewell, pilgrimage (9 H. / 631 CE), during the first pilgrimage performed under the organization of Abu Bakr (ra), Ali (ra), conveyed, by the order of the Prophet, the first verses of the chapter al-Tawba, “After this year, no idol worshipper will perform the pilgrimage and that no naked person can circumambulate the Ka’ba.”
The issue of what is awrah other than the genitals is largely regulated by hadiths. The Prophet said, “Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty without a headscarf.”, and “O Asma! When a woman reaches the age of puberty, it is not permissible to see any limbs other than this and that.” While saying these words, the Prophet (saw) pointed to her face with his hands.”
According to the Ḥanafis, if a person has clean clothes but prays naked, even if he is in the dark, this prayer will not be valid.
According to the Ḥanafis, the parts of a man’s body, which must be covered during prayer, consist of the area that extends from the navel to the knee, with the knee included but not the navel. In this regard, Shafiʿis hold the same view, except that they exclude the kneecap just like the navel. However, although the navel and the knee are not included in what constitutes the man’s awrah, the Shafiʿis stipulate that these parts should also be covered as a means of ensuring that the entire private area is concealed. The evidence in this matter is the following prophetic saying, “A man’s private part is between his navel and his kneecap.”, and “No one should look at the part of a man below his navel and above the kneecap.” Ḥanafis, who were a little more cautious in this regard, included the kneecaps within the scope of the thigh and considered it awrah.
As for a free woman, according to the Ḥanafis, her private parts consist of her entire body, including even the hair on her head that falls below her ears. Women’s faces and hands are not within the awrah when they are both in and outside of the prayer unless there is fear of mischief. There is a difference of opinion about the feet. According to the sound view, the feet are not part of the awrah, but the arms, ears, and loose hair are part of their awrah. According to Shafiʿis, a free woman’s awrah comprises her entire body, including even the hair on her head that falls below her ears; the only exceptions are the face and the hands. The Ḥanbalis agree with the ruling of the Shafiʿis in this regard, the only difference being that, unlike the Shafiʿis, the Ḥanbalis exclude nothing but the face alone from a free woman’s private parts.
Allah the Exalted has said, “…Women they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof…” In the hadith of Asma (r.anha) mentioned above, the Prophet explained the places that appear ordinarily as “hands and face”. Moreover, the hadith narrated by Aisha (r.anha), which states that a woman should cover her head while performing prayers, confirms that the hair is within the parts that must be covered.
Accordingly, if a quarter of a woman’s head or thigh remains revealing long enough to perform a pillar of prayer, her prayer will be invalid according to Abu Ḥanīfa and Imam Muhammad. According to Abu Yusuf, her prayer is valid unless more than half of her head or other limbs are uncovered. While the jurists who held the first view recognize one-fourth of them as the whole limb, whereas Abu Yusuf considered more than half to be the whole.
According to the Malikis, the awrah of men and women are divided into two types “heavy awrah (ghalīz awrah)” which is highly unpresentable, and “light awrah (khafīf awrah)” which is mildly unpresentable. The heavy awrah for men includes nothing but their genitals and buttocks. These parts must be absolutely covered. The other parts between the navel and the kneecap are considered light awrah. Although it is necessary to cover it, it is not as strong as the first type. The evidence is the following hadith reported from Anas ibn Malik, “The Prophet lifted his izār (lower loincloth) over his thigh on the day of Khaybar so much that I could see the whiteness of his thigh.” A woman’s chest, her back at the chest level, her arms, neck, head, and below the knee are accepted as light awrah, and the rest of their body is considered heavy awrah. The result of this distinction, which is reflected in the prayer, is as follows: A person who prays with parts revealing that are considered light awrah will bear the sin of having violated the general religious obligation, but his/her prayer will not be invalid. According to those who hold this view, it is sunnah for a woman to cover her head in prayer, and if she prays without covering her head, this prayer is valid, but it is recommended to re-perform it before its time ends. However, when the prayer’s time is over, it does not need to be re-performed.
According to the majority, including the Ḥanafis, the front and the back parts and the thighs between the kneecaps and the private parts are also included in the scope of awrah. This is because there are other hadiths stating that the thigh is part of the awrah. In this matter, caution must be exercised.
Considering a limb as awrah is relative to others, according to the preferred view, not according to the person himself/herself. It is sufficient to keep the awrah in a way that cannot be seen by others. Therefore, if a person sees his private part from his wide collar while praying, it will not invalidate his prayer but if anyone else sees it, it will invalidate the prayer.
If more than one-fourth of a limb is revealed by the act of the person performing the prayer, the prayer will be invalidated immediately, without the need to wait for a certain time that would be long enough to perform a pillar of prayer. For instance, if a woman takes off her headscarf while she is praying. In such a case, even if she covers her headscarf again, her prayer will not be valid.
If a part of the limbs considered as awrah is known and if the total of the gap is equal to at least one-fourth of the smallest limb of the awrah and if the period that the limb is showing continues for a long time, it will prevent the validity of the prayer.
A dress that is thin enough to show the color of the skin is not considered a cover for the awrah. Therefore, the prayer will not be valid with a dress that displays the color of the skin or the whiteness or the redness of the skin. For such a dress does not fulfill covering oneself. If the dress is thick but too tight to reveal the limbs and the shape of the body, although this is considered reprehensible, the prayer will be valid. This is because it is difficult to avoid it.
According to Shafiʿis, it is makrūḥ for women to perform prayers in a tight-fitting dress that reveals the shape of the body, and it is also more appropriate for men to abandon such clothing.
A person who cannot find anything to cover his/her private part can perform the prayer by sitting down and stretching his/her feet towards the qibla, this is the most virtuous way to act. For by sitting in such a position more parts of the body are covered. If something or cloth is found to cover a part of the awrah, the front, and back private parts, which are considered ghalīz awrah, need to be covered first, and then the thighs for men, and subsequently the knees. As for women, after the thighs, the abdomen, the back, and then the knees and other limbs are covered, respectively.
4) Facing the Qibla
Performing the prayer and turning towards the qibla is one of the conditions of the ritual prayer. The Prophet (saw) and his Companions prayed towards the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem in the first eighteen months of the Medinan period. With the following Qur’anic verse revealed two months before the Battle of Badr, “…Turn then Your face in the direction of the sacred Mosque: Wherever you are, turn your faces in that direction…” the direction of qibla was turned towards the Ka’ba. According to a narration, the first prayer performed towards the new qibla was a late afternoon prayer. After performing this prayer with the Prophet, a Companion went to the Bani Salama Masjid, announced the change of qibla while the congregation was still performing the prayer, and the congregation turned the rows towards Mecca without pausing the prayer and completed the remaining cycles of prayer towards the new direction of qibla. That is why the aforementioned mosque was given the name “Masjid al-Qiblatayn (The Mosque with two qiblas)”.
The Ka’ba is not only the well-known cube-shaped building in Mecca but possibly it also refers to the literal location of that building. As a matter of fact, the space above this holy place up to the heavens and the space below it to the depths of the earth is also considered the direction of the qibla. For this reason, those who are next to or inside the Ka’ba perform their prayers by turning to any side of it. The congregation forms a circle around the Ka’ba and they pray together provided that they do not stand in front of the imam.
If one performs an obligatory, a supererogatory, a funeral prayer, or a prostration of recitation intentionally towards a direction other than the qibla, it is not considered valid. Intentionally turning in any other direction other than the qibla without an excuse in prayer leads to disbelief.
Muslim scholars are in agreement that it is obligatory for everyone who sees the Ka’ba to turn to it. In fact, according to the Hanbalis, the Meccans must turn towards the Ka’ba itself, even if there is a barrier between them and it.
According to the Ḥanafis, it is not obligatory for those who are far from the Ka’ba to pray facing the Ka’ba, perhaps it is farḍ to turn towards the Ka’ba and this is sufficient. This is because if the direction of the Ka’ba is not known exactly, an investigation is carried out and prayers are performed by turning towards what is considered the strongest opinion. One of the Companions, Amir ibn Rabia (ra) said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah (saw) during a dark night. We could not determine which direction the qibla was from us. Each of us prayed in different directions. In the morning, we informed the Prophet (saw) about the situation. Upon this the verse was revealed, “To Allah belong the east and the West: Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of Allah. For Allah is all-Pervading, all-Knowing.” The Prophet (saw) also said, “What is between the east and the west is qibla”.
According to the Shafiʿis, both those who are near the Ka’ba and those who are distant from it must pray facing the Ka’ba itself or the atmosphere adjacent to it and not simply the general direction in which it is located. For it is stated in the verse, “Hence, from wherever you may come forth, turn your face in prayer towards the sacred Mosque; and wherever you all may be, turn your faces towards it.” This verse makes it necessary to turn to the Ka’ba itself. However, the Shafiʿis also adopted the principle that if the qibla cannot be determined, one will act according to the result of a diligent investigation.
Anyone who does not know in which direction the qibla is located tries to determine the qibla with the help of various instruments such as an old or new prayer niche or with the assistance of a compass and similar instruments. Moreover, the person may ask a reliable person, or, find the direction through the pole star, the sun, the moon, or the direction of the wind. Thus, the person may use his best opinion and pray by turning towards the qibla. Furthermore, a person who can find another person who has knowledge about the qibla may follow what that person says about the qibla. This is because the information given by someone else is considered stronger than personal conjectural opinion. If one realizes that she or he has turned in the wrong direction after performing the prayer, the prayer does not have to be performed again. However, if he or she is advised so while praying, then he or she must turn in the correct direction.
When turning to the qibla direction in prayer and mentioning it in the intention for prayer by saying “I have turned to the qibla or to the Ka’ba” is not necessary according to a sound view. However, according to another view, mentioning the facing towards the Ka’ba in the intention is necessary.
If a person cannot turn to the qibla due to illness and cannot find anyone to turn him, or if he or she is not ill but cannot turn to the qibla due to fear of enemies or predators, then he or she should perform the prayer in the direction that can be faced since it is a well-known maxim that obligations are limited by ability.
If a person doubts the direction of the qibla and has someone with him who knows the direction of the qibla, and without asking him, turns to one direction according to his own investigation, his prayer will be valid if he truly is facing the direction of the qibla. If he does not, it will not be valid. The same is the case for the blind man.
The Malikis disagree with the Ḥanafis over the matter of asking others vs. the case of investigating for oneself. The Ḥanafis hold that if one finds no prayer niches to pray toward, he must first ask someone where the qiblah is, but if there is no one to ask, he must investigate the matter himself. As for the Malikis, they hold that someone who is qualified to investigate where the qibla must do this rather than ask someone else unless the signs which would have aided in his investigation are not observable. The Shafiʿis hold that there are four degrees of knowledge concerning where the qiblah lies. The first is knowing what one has gained by oneself. If it is possible to determine where the qibla is without anyone else’s assistance, one should do so and ask no one else for the answer. The second grade of knowledge in this regard is that which has been gained by asking a trustworthy person who knows where the qibla lies. The third degree of knowledge is that gained through the process of reaching one’s own independent judgment on where the qibla is located. As for the fourth degree of knowledge, it involves following someone else who has arrived at an informed judgment concerning where the qibla is located.
Someone who investigates where the qibla lies but is unable to reach a clear conclusion has done all he or she can; hence, his or her prayer will be valid in whichever direction he or she turns. Three of the four schools agree that in such a case, one is not required to repeat the prayer later. In agreement with the other schools, the Shafiʿis hold that if someone seeks to determine where the qibla lies but is unable to reach any certainty about the matter, he or she may pray in any direction she or he chooses. However, unlike the other three schools, the Shafiʿis insist that such a person must repeat the prayer later.
According to the Ḥanafis and the Ḥanbalis, if someone prays in a direction to which he was led through thought and investigation, after which he realizes as he prays that he was-or may have been wrong in his judgment, all he has to do is shift to the direction which he now knows or believes to be that of the qibla. According to the Malikis, if someone prays in a direction where his investigation has led him to believe is the qibla, then realizes while praying that his judgment was mistaken, he must discontinue his prayer if the person is sighted rather than blind, and if there is a major difference between the qibla and the direction in which he or she is praying. As for the Shafiʿis, they hold that if it becomes clear to someone while he is praying that he is not praying toward the qibla, his prayer becomes invalid; hence, he must stop praying and start all over again.
If someone seeks to locate the qibla and prays, after which he realizes, or at least suspects, that he prayed in the wrong direction, his prayer remains valid and he is not required to repeat it. This is the view of all the schools except the Shafiʿis. The Malikis, likewise, take exception to certain aspects of it. The Shafiʿis hold that if someone seeks to locate the qibla, then prays to completion, after which he becomes certain that he prayed in a direction other than that of the qibla, his prayer is invalidated and he must repeat it. However, if the person merely suspects that he did not pray toward the actual qibla, then there is no need to repeat the prayer.
If someone neglects to investigate where the qibla lies even though he would have been able to do so -either by praying in the same direction as someone else who has reached an independent judgment concerning the qibla or by simply praying alone without knowing where the qibla is – his prayer will be invalid even if it becomes clear in the end that he did, in fact, pray toward the qibla. This ruling is agreed upon by all the schools except that of the Ḥanafis. As for the Ḥanafis, if a person who doubts the direction of the qibla starts the prayer without doing any investigation, he should re-perform the prayer if he realizes that he was praying in the right direction while performing the prayer. This is because the remaining cycles that he will perform with full conviction cannot be built upon the previous cycles that he has already performed based on doubt. However, if he realizes that it was the correct direction after completing his prayer, it is not necessary to re-perform it. This is because all cycles have been performed based on the same level of conviction. According to Imam Abu Yusuf, there is no need to re-perform the prayer in either case.
If a person who doubts and searches the direction of the qibla, determines the direction of the qibla but then turns to some other direction and performs his prayer, it will not be considered valid. In this case, even if he faces the qibla, he has to re-perform the prayer. According to Abu Yusuf, if he rightly determines the right direction, it is no longer necessary to re-perform it.
According to Abu Ḥanīfa, if a person turns away from the qibla while praying in the masjid, thinking that his wuḍū was nullified, and later realizes that his wuḍū was not nullified, his prayer will not be considered invalidated. However, if he leaves the mosque, his prayer will be regarded as invalid due to the change of place without an excuse.
It is advisable that the individual who has different views about the direction of the qibla should pray by herself or himself alone. This is because if they pray in a congregation, the prayer of the person who disagrees with the imam will not be valid.
Praying on a mount:
It is possible and permissible for a traveler to perform mu’akkad sunnah and other supererogatory prayers on a mount. However, the sunnah of the dawn prayer is excluded from this rule. Amir ibn Rabia (ra) is reported to have said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) praying supererogatory prayers on his mount, by making gestures with his head, and praying in whichever direction the mount turned. But the Prophet would not do this in the obligatory prayers.” The qibla of those who cannot turn towards the qibla due to illness or for those riding a mount is the direction of the journey. Such a person prays through gestures.
Accordingly, all kinds of prayers can be performed on the mount when there is a valid excuse. In normal situations, only supererogatory prayers can be performed. Farḍ or wājib prayers must be performed by dismounting the ride, or if one can manage to perform these prayers in their entirety as if they were being performed on the ground. If someone is able to do this, the prayer is considered valid even if the animal or the vehicle is moving.
However, a person in the state of wuḍū’, who has to perform the obligatory prayer on a mount or in a vehicle such as an animal like a horse or camel or in an automobile, bus, train, or plane, due to various reasons such as mud, snowy ground, the fear of losing one’s companions, or the fact that it is clear that the vehicle boarded will not stop during the prayer time, can perform this prayer on his or her seat by gestures, turning towards any direction possible.
Supererogatory prayers can be performed outside the city, on any type of mount, in any direction, even if there is no excuse. According to Abu Yusuf, supererogatory prayers can also be performed in the city, without karāha, on a mount. According to Imam Muhammad, it is reprehensible to perform the prayers in any desired direction in the city in this way. The outer limits of the city start from the point where it becomes permissible for the traveler to perform the four-cycle prayers by shortening them to two cycles.
Since performing two prayers together (jam’) according to Ḥanafis is not accepted in any place other than Arafat and Muzdalifa during the pilgrimage, it is not conventional to perform two ritual prayers by combining them due to circumstances of rain, muddy grounds, or travel. The view of the other schools is that when the above-mentioned excuses are present, it is not permissible to perform the prayer on the mount, but it is permissible to combine the noon and late afternoon prayers or the evening and the night prayers together, at the appropriate place and time.
The person praying inside a ship may turn towards the qibla if he is able, and if the direction of the ship changes, the person praying may change his direction towards the qibla. However, if he cannot follow the movements of the ship during the prayer after determining the qibla through investigation at the beginning of the prayer, he may complete his prayer in the direction of the qibla in which he first started to pray.
Today, riding animals have been replaced by traveling with motor and electric vehicles. Yet, the provisions regarding riding animals also apply to those traveling in all kinds of transportation vehicles.
As a result, the fact that Muslims turn to the Ka’ba, which is the oldest and most sacred mosque in the world, in all their prayers is an expression of the unity and order among them, and the joy of common worship.
Time is also essential for the farḍ prayers and their sunnah cycles, the witr prayers, the tarawīḥ, and the Eid prayers. The farḍ prayers are dawn, noon, late afternoon, evening, and night prayers. As noted earlier, the Friday prayer is performed in place of the noon prayer on Fridays. It is necessary to know the specific times of these prayers and to perform these prayers within their prescribed times. Since the obligatory prayer performed before its time is not regarded as valid, the prayer that is not performed in time or left to be done after its prescribed time is considered a compensatory (qaḍā) prayer. There is no compensatory prayer performed in place of the Friday prayer, the Eid prayers, the funeral prayers, and the sunnah prayers.
In various verses of the Qur’an, prayer times in a way are referred to by “mentioning the parts and referring to the whole” such as “ṣalāh, tasbīḥ, ḥamd, and sajdah”. The daily prayer times are expressed in the Qur’anic verses as follows, “For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.”, “Be constant in prayer from the time when the sun has passed its zenith till the darkness of night, and be ever mindful of its recitation at dawn: for, behold, the recitation of prayer at dawn is indeed witnessed.”, “So (give) glory to Allah, when you reach eventide and when you rise in the morning; Yea, to Him be praise, in the heavens and on earth; and in the late afternoon and when the day begins to decline.”, “Therefore be patient with what they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before its setting; yea, celebrate them for part of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day: that you may have (spiritual) joy.”, “And establish regular prayers at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night…”, “And celebrate the name of thy Lord morning and evening, and part of the night, prostrate thyself to Him; and glorify Him a long night through.”, “Bear, then, with patience, all that they say, and celebrate the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.”, and “And rise from your sleep and pray (tahajjud) during part of the night as well, as a free offering from you…”
There are various hadiths and practices of the Prophet (saw) regarding the times of the obligatory prayers. According to the common view, the day after the night of Ascension, when the ritual prayer was declared obligatory, Gabriel (as) came to Muhammad and acted as the imam himself and showed the beginning and end times of the prayers. According to a narration from Ibn Abbas (ra), the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Gabriel (as) led me in prayer at the House (i.e. the Ka’ba). He prayed the noon prayer with me when the sun had passed the meridian to the extent of the thong of a sandal; he prayed the afternoon prayer with me when the shadow of everything was as long as itself; he prayed the sunset prayer with me when one who is fasting breaks the fast; he prayed the night prayer with me when the twilight had ended, and he prayed the dawn prayer with me when food and drink become forbidden to one who is keeping the fast. On the following day, he prayed the noon prayer with me when his shadow was as long as himself; he prayed the afternoon prayer with me when his shadow was twice as long as himself; he prayed the sunset prayer at the time when one who is fasting breaks the fast; he prayed the night prayer with me when about a third of the night had passed, and he prayed the dawn prayer with me when there was a fair amount of light. Then turning to me he said: Muhammad, this is the time observed by the prophets before you, and the time is anywhere between two times.”
Al-Bukhari said that this hadith is the soundest hadith regarding the times of prayer. The hadith indicates that there are two times for prayers other than the evening prayers.
Since the beginning of the time of the noon prayer begins with the inclination of the sun to the west, the zawāl time must be determined. A day in Islam is classified into two types: a shar’i day and the customary one. The “shar’i day” is the period from the second dawn to sunset. As for the “customary day”, it is the period between sunrise and sunset.
There are two views on how long the zawāl time is in Islam. According to the first view, the customary day is applicable in this regard, and the exact time of zawāl is called “Istiwā time”. This is the moment when the sun is at its highest peak at noon. This moment is the time of karāḥa when performing any prayer is considered forbidden.
According to the second view, the “shar’i day” is applicable in this regard. In shar’i day, the time of “istiwā” becomes clearer a little before the time of zawāl. Therefore, the time of karāḥa consists of the time from before the time of istiwā to the time of zawāl. For example, let us say that the duration of the shar’i day on the first day of January and the period between the second dawn and the setting of the sun is 11 hours and 10 minutes. The customary day is 9 hours and 25 minutes. In this case, half of the shar’i day, that is, the time of istiwā is 5 hours and 35 minutes after Dawn, and it coincides with 3 hours and 50 minutes after sunrise. Therefore, half of the shar’i day is 52 minutes before zawāl time. This 52-minute period is the time of karāḥa. This is the view of the Harzem jurists. (See the subject of makrūḥ times.)
The time of the noon prayer continues until the shadows of things become equal in length to the things themselves without taking account of the length of its shadow at midday (called fay’ al-zawāl). This time period of the noon prayer is called “aṣr al-awwal”. This is the opinion of the majority, including Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad. However, according to Abu Ḥanīfa, the time of noon prayer continues until the shadow of the objects becomes twice as long as its own height, except for fay’ al-zawāl. After that, the time of noon prayer ends and the time of the late afternoon prayer starts. This is called “aṣr al-thanī”.
The evidence of the majority of jurists is that Gabriel (as) taught the Prophet the prayer times and led the noon prayer on the second day when the shadow of everything was equal in length to the things themselves. Abu Ḥanīfa’s evidence is the following hadith of the Prophet: “Perform the noon prayer when the weather is cool.” This is called “ibrād (letting it cool)”. The time when the heat is most severe in the Arabian region is when the shadow of everything is equal in length to the things themselves.
According to the two views mentioned above, when the time for the noon prayer ends, the time of the late afternoon starts. The evidence for this is the following hadith narrated by Aisha (r. anha): “The Prophet (saw) recited the verse “Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer…” and he (saw) also said, “The middle prayer is the late afternoon prayer”. Again, the following is stated in the hadith: “A person who catches up with one cycle of the afternoon prayer before the sun sets will have been performed the afternoon prayer in time.” According to the majority of mujtahids, it is makrūḥ to delay the afternoon prayer until the time when the sun turns yellow (isfirār). This is based upon the fact that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “The prayer performed at this time is the prayer of the hypocrites. The hypocrite sits and waits for the sun. When the sun enters between the two horns of Satan (it begins to set), he quickly makes four cycles of afternoon prayer and remembers Allah very little.”
The time of the evening prayer begins with the complete setting of the sun and ends with the disappearance of the redness (twilight glow) on the western horizon. According to the Ḥanafis, the Western horizon goes through three successive stages after sundown, namely, (1) red, (2) white, and (3) black. According to Abu Ḥanīfa, twilight is the whiteness that occurs on the western horizon after sunset. According to the majority, including Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, and another narration from Abu Ḥanīfa, the twilight consists of the redness that occurs on the horizon. When this redness disappears, it is time for the evening prayer. The evidence for this is Abdullah ibn Umar’s saying, “Dawn is the red on the horizon”. The preferred opinion of the Ḥanafis is the opinion of Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad. Accordingly, the time of the night prayer starts from the moment when the redness on the western horizon disappears and continues until the true dawn (fajr al-ṣādiq).
According to the Ḥanafis, it is mustaḥab to delay the “ishā prayer until one-third of the night. It is permissible to delay it until the middle of the night, and it is makrūḥ to delay it until the second dawn unless there is an excuse. For, in this case, the fear is that the person may miss the prayer.
According to the Ḥanafis, the beginning of the time for the witr prayer is after the night prayer. The end of the witr prayer is just before the second dawn. It is more virtuous for a person who is not certain that he will wake up, to perform the witr prayer before going to sleep, and for a person who is certain that he will wake up, it is better to delay it until the end of the night.
According to the Malikis, the elective time of witr prayer is the time period after the night prayer. As for its imperative time, it starts with the break of true dawn and continues until the performance of the dawn prayer. (For more information, see “Prayer Times – Performing Two Prayers at One Time (Jam’ al-Ṣalātayn) and Prayer Times at the Poles”.)
6) Intentions for Prayers
Niyyah means perseverance, to want firmly, and to intend. Niyyah or intention in prayer means a heartfelt determination or firm resolve to perform the prayer for the sake of drawing near to Allah alone.
There is a consensus among Muslim jurists that the intention is obligatory in the ritual prayer. However, while the majority regard it as a condition for validity, Shafiʿis and some Malikis consider it an essential pillar (rukn). However, there is no difference, essentially, between its being a condition for prayer’s validity or an integral part of prayer itself. In both cases, prayer without intention is not acceptable and must be re-performed.
The purpose of the intention is to determine the type of prayer, distinguish the worship from other acts carried out as a habit, and achieve sincerity in worship. This can only be achieved by making worship unique to Allah. Allah Almighty says, “And withal, they were not enjoined aught but that they should worship God, sincere in their faith in Him alone…” In a hadith reported by the narrators whose number reached the level of tawātur, “the relationship between intention and action” is explained as follows: “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” The hadith is related to an incident at the time the Muslims emigrated from Mecca to Medina. While it was stated that the immigrants who left all their wealth in Mecca and migrated to Medina would enjoy great rewards, one of them emigrated for the sake of a woman whom he wanted to marry. What he gained from the emigration was his marriage to this woman, which was his intention of emigration. It is reported that the Prophet said this hadith about him.
The intention must be pure, and all acts of worship must be carried out in a conscious state. Only the consent of Allah Almighty should be sought in deeds, and one who performs the prayer should not be heedless of what he or she is doing.
An intention is an act of the heart. However, it is more appropriate to make the intention with the heart and say it with the tongue. For example, if a person intends to start prayer in his heart and does not say anything with his tongue, that prayer will still be permissible. However, with intention in the heart, it is better to say, “I intend to perform the obligatory or sunnah prayer of such and such time”. The intention expressed in this way is mustaḥab according to the preferred view because in such a case, the tongue strengthens the intention in the heart.
According to three schools other than Shafiʿis, the intention can be close to the takbīr al-iftitāḥ (Opening takbīr). However, a prayer is not valid with an intention made after the opening takbīr. This is the preferred view. According to another view, it is permissible to pray with an intention made after the takbīr as long as it is before the supplication of Subḥānaka or Aūdhu. According to Shafiʿis, the intention must be right before the opening takbīr.
According to the Ḥanafis, the intention is required in obligatory prayers or in wājib prayers such as witr, prostration of recitation, votive prayer, and Eid prayers, these must be determined. As a matter of fact, when performing compensatory (qaḍā) prayers, it is necessary to determine both the time and the day in the form of stating whether it is a compensatory prayer for the first or last prayer missed. For example, intention can be expressed as follows “the farḍ of today’s dawn prayer or the Friday prayer or the witr or Eid prayer, qaḍā prayer for the first-noon prayer that I missed”. In general terms, it is not enough to make an intention by stating “farḍ prayer” because this is not sufficient to determine the prayer. However, it is sufficient to intend to “perform the farḍ of the time” without mentioning which prayer while still being within the prescribed time of that prayer. However, Friday prayer is an exception. It is not enough to perform it with the intention of “performing the farḍ of the time”. This is because that time is not really specific for the Friday prayer, but for the noon prayer.
As for the supererogatory prayers, it can be said, “I intend to perform the first sunnah cycles of this time” or “the last sunnah cycles of this time”. However, the absolute intention to pray a supererogatory prayer, without mentioning the name of the ritual prayer itself, is also sufficient. It is not necessary to determine whether that prayer is mu’akkad or non-mu’akkad sunnah or the number of its cycles. However, it is a more prudent attitude to specify the “tarawīḥ prayer” or “the sunnah of the time” for the tarawīḥ prayer.
According to the Malikis, the intention which accompanies the performance of an obligatory prayer must include a specification of the time of the prayer, for example, noon, mid-afternoon, and so forth. If someone fails to specify which obligatory prayer he or she intends to perform, the resulting prayer will not be valid. As for the nafilah prayers, if it is a sunnah muakkadah prayer such as witr, Eid, or sunnah cycles of the dawn prayer, the intention must specify the type of prayer. However, in other types of nafilah prayers absolute intention would suffice to fulfill the requirement of the intention.
The Shafiʿis specify the following four conditions that must be fulfilled in the intention that accompanies an obligatory prayer: (1) It must specify that the prayer intended is obligatory rather than voluntary. (2) It must express the determination to perform the actions included in ritual prayer; this determination is expressed by conjuring a mental image of the actions entailed by prayer, even if only a general one, and consciously determining to carry them out. In this way, the act of prayer on which one is embarking is distinguished from other acts. (3) It must specify which of the five daily prayers is intended, be it noon, mid-afternoon, or some other. (4) The elements listed in (1), (2), and (3) above must all coincide with one’s utterance of the opening takbīr. If any of these conditions are unfulfilled, both one’s intention and one’s prayer will be invalid.
With respect to the intention in the nafilah prayers, the Shafiʿis distinguish between the following: (1) prayers associated with a particular time, such as the sunnah-based prayers connected to each of the five daily prayers, and the mid-morning prayer (ḍuḥa), (2) prayers not connected to a particular time but performed for a specific reason, such as the prayer for rain, and (3) prayers which have neither a specific time nor a specific reason. If a nafilah prayer fits one of the first two types, one should specify which prayer is intended. As for the nafilah prayers fitting to the third type, all that is required when performing them is that one intends to perform the ritual prayer without any further specification and that one’s intention coincides with the utterance of the opening takbīr.
According to the Ḥanafis, if a person catches up with a group performing the ritual prayer in the congregation and does not know whether this prayer is an obligatory one or a tarawīḥ prayer, he intends it to be farḍ. If they find out that it was an obligatory one, the prayer is considered valid. If the congregation was performing the tarawīḥ prayer, his prayer will be accepted as supererogatory. Since it will be performed before performing the night prayer, it will not be accepted as tarawīḥ prayer.
According to three schools except for the Shafiʿis, the intention should be made before the opening takbīr, and deeds such as eating, drinking, and speaking that are incompatible with prayer should not come between the intention and the takbīr. However, if something related to prayer, such as performing wuḍū or walking into the mosque, enters between the intention and the opening takbīr, it will not do any harm according to the Ḥanafis and the Ḥanbalis. Accordingly, if a person who intends to pray after that performs ablution or walks to the mosque and utters the takbīr in the mosque and follows the imam, but does not intend again, his previous intention will suffice because such deeds are compatible with the prayer. The ruling is the same for a person whose wuḍū is invalidated during prayer, and who leaves the prayer to perform wuḍū and then comes back and continues to pray from where was left. According to Shafiʿis, it is essential that the intention should be carried out during the opening takbīr. Even though the Malikis agree with the Ḥanafis and the Ḥanbalis in regards to the validity of prayer even if the intention and the opening takbīr are separated from each other, they require that the time span between them should be short by commonly held standards.
According to the Ḥanafis, it is permissible to perform compensatory (qaḍā) prayer with the intention to perform normal prayer (prayer in time) or vice versa. For example, if a person thinks that the time for the noon prayer has not ended yet and intends to perform the noon prayer, and then realizes that the time has already ended, that prayer will be accepted as compensatory prayer. If a person intends for two obligatory prayers at once, the intention for the prayer of the current time will be valid.
According to the Ḥanafis, it is not necessary to keep in mind the intention made at the beginning of the prayer until the end of the prayer. Accordingly, if a person starts the prayer by intending to perform the obligatory prayer of a certain time, and then completes the prayer with the thought that he was performing a supererogatory prayer, he is still considered to have performed the obligatory prayer for which he intended at the beginning of the prayer.
If a person who intends to perform a supererogatory prayer, after saying the opening takbīr, repeats the takbīr by intending for an obligatory prayer, he will have started to perform the obligatory one. The ruling for the opposite situation is also the same. For example, if a person who started with the intention of a farḍ prayer, after performing one cycle, utters the takbīr again by intending another type of farḍ or nafilah, he will have invalidated his previous prayer and started the prayer according to his new intention.
If the person prays alone, he needs to determine in the intention whether it is farḍ or wājib that he is going to perform. If he is going to perform nafilah, it will suffice to say “I intend to pray”.
According to the Ḥanafis and the Malikis, if a person, who has already started to perform the prayer, utters an opening takbīr while intending to follow an imam, he will invalidate his previous prayer and join the prayer with the imam.
For a person who follows the imam in prayer, according to the preferred view, stating the intention without specifying which prayer he or she will perform or stating the intention only “to follow the imam” is not sufficient. Saying “I intend to pray with the imam” is not enough either. He should also define the prayer, for example, “I have followed the imam who is ready to perform the farḍ of the noon prayer”.
If a person commences the prayer before the imam’s takbīr or even before the imam finishes the words of Allah or akbar, he will not be following the imam. However, if he utters takbīr a second time, he will start following the imam with this second takbīr.
The intention of the congregation to follow the imam should be after the imam starts the prayer by saying “Allāhu akbar” so that they will be following someone who has already started performing prayer and there will be no possibility left for saying takbīr before him. This is the view of Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad.
According to Abu Ḥanīfa, the takbīrs of the congregation should be close to the imam’s takbīr. This is because such an act consists of the virtue of starting worship immediately. Accordingly, the intention must be carried out first. However, when a person says takbīr and starts following the imam before the imam finishes the recitation of chapter Fatiḥa, he or she attains the reward of joining the congregation with the opening takbīr.
The congregation does not need to know the imam they follow. However, if someone mentions his intention to follow a specific person as the imam and then it becomes clear that the imam was someone else, this act of following will not be valid. This is because his intention becomes a specified (muqayyad) one.
According to the Ḥanafis, it is not necessary for an imam to intend to become an imam for a male congregation. However, if there are women among the congregation, the person who will lead the congregation must specify his intention to lead women. Otherwise, it would not be valid for women to follow such an imam. Since it is difficult to know whether there is a woman among the congregation today, it is more appropriate for those who will lead a congregation to make a general intention that includes women, such as “I have become an imam for all of the people who follow me”.
According to the Malikis, the imam’s conscious intention to lead others in prayer is required in all prayers whose validity depends on their being performed communally, namely, (1) the Friday prayer, (2) the sundown and evening prayers when they are being joined in advance in anticipation of rain, (3) the prayer of fear, and (4) the “prayer of delegated leadership”, i.e., a prayer during which the imam has to step aside for some reason and allow one of the worshipers being led in prayer to step forward to take his place.
As for the Shafiʿis, they maintain that it is only necessary for the imam to consciously intend to lead others in the following four situations: (1) At the Friday prayer; (2) When two prayers are being joined in advance-either the noon or mid-afternoon prayers or the sundown and evening prayers-due to rain (3) When a prayer is being repeated in the community during its appointed time period, and (4) When it is a prayer that the imam has vowed to perform in a congregation, in which case he must consciously intend to lead others in order to be released from his vow. According to the Ḥanbalis, the imam must consciously intend to lead others in prayer every time he does so, and this intention must coincide with the beginning of the prayer.
 Al-Mā’ida, 5: 6. Al-Bukhari, Wuḍū’, 2; Muslim, Ṭaḥāra, 2; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 1; al-Darimī, Wuḍū’, 21; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal II, 39. Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 81, Ṣalāh, 187; al-Tirmidhī, Raḍā, 12. See al-Baqara, 2: 222. Al-Bukhari, Wuḍū, 63, Ḥayḍ, 24; Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 62,63; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 107; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 93, 95, 96. See al-Kāsānī, ibid, I, 114 ff.; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, I, 179 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, 33, 39, 53; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 372 ff. Al-Muddaththir, 74: 4. Al-Aʿrāf, 7: 31. Al-Baqara, 2: 125. Al-Baqara, 2: 222. Al-Tawba, 9: 108. Al-Bukhari, Wuḍū’, 63, Ḥayḍ, 24; Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 62, 63; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 107. Al-Bukhari, Wuḍū’, 58, Adab, 35, 80; Muslim, Ṭaḥāra, 98, 100; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 136; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 112. Akyüz, ibid, I, p. 119. Al-Nūr, 24: 31, 58. See al-Aʿrāf, 7: 20, 22, 26, 27; Ṭa Ha, 20: 121; al-Mā’ida, 5: 31. Ṭa Ha, 20: 121. Al-Nūr, 24: 38. Al-Nūr, 24: 31. Al-Aḥzāb, 33: 59. Al-Aʿrāf, 7: 31. Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkāmu’l-Qur’ān, critically ed. M. Ṣadiq Qamhawī, Cairo, n.d., IV, 205 ff.; Elmalılı, Tafsīr, 2nd ed., Istanbul 1960, III, 2151, 2152. Al-Bukhari, Ṣalāh, 10. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 132; al-Tirmidhī, Ṣalāh, 160; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, IV, 151, 218, 259. Abū Dawūd, Libās, 31. Ibn Abidīn ibid, I, 375. Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, II, 187. Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 26, Hadith No: 496; See al-Zaylaī, Naṣb, I, 297. Al-Nūr, 24: 31. Abū Dawūd, Libās, 31. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 132; al-Tirmidhī, Ṣalāh, 160; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, IV, 151, 218, 259. Al-Bukhari, Ṣalāh, 12; al-Shawkanī, Nayl, 63, 64. Komisyon, İlmihal, Pub. by T.D.V., I, 230, 231. See al-Bukhari, Ṣalāh, 12; Abū Dawūd, Hammam, 1; al-Tirmidhī, Adab, 40; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, III, 478, 479, V, 290. See Ibn Abidīn, I, 375 ff.; al-Zaylaī, Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq, Amiriyya ed., I, 95; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, I, 599; Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, I, 111; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 579 ff.; Ö.Nasuhi Bilmen, Büyük İslam İlmihali, p. 109, 110. Al-Baqara, 2: 144. See al-Bukhari, Imān, 30; Tafsīru surah, 2/ 12, 15-19; Muslim, Masājid, 13; al-Nasā’ī, Ṣalāh, 24, Qiblah, 3; al-Darimī, Ṣalāh, 30; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, I, 250, IV, 304; al-Tirmidhī, Tafsīru surah, 2/ 10; al-Qurṭubī, ibid, II, 107-109; Ibn Kathīr, ibid, I, 134-136. See Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 397 ff.; al-Maydanī, Lubāb, I, 67; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, p. 34; al-Zaylaī, Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq, I. 100. ff.; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, I, 431 ff. Al-Baqara, 2: 115; al-Zaylaī, Naṣb al-Rāya, I, 304; Hasan Basri Çantay, Kur’ān-ı Hakim ve Meal-i Kerim, I, 36. Al-Tirmidhī, Ṣalāh, 139; al-Nasā’ī, Ṣiyām, 43; Ibn Maja, ‘Iqāmah, 56. Al-Baqara, 2: 150. Al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 598. Jaziri, Abd al-Rahman, Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools, Fons Vitae, 2009, pp. 259-260. Jaziri, ibid, p. 262. Al-Shawkanī, ibid, III, 144. See above subheading “Combining two prayers (Jamʿ aṣ-Ṣalatayn)” for more details on the topic. See Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 397-406; al-Maydanī, Lubāb, I, 67; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, p. 34; Ibn Qudāmah, ibid, I, 431-452; Bilmen, Büyük İslam İlmihali, Istanbul 1985, p. 111-113; al-Shawkanī, ibid, III, 144. Al-Nisā, 4: 103. Al-’Isrā, 17: 78. Al-Rūm, 30: 17-18. Ṭa Ha, 20: 130. Hūd, 11: 114. Al-Insan, 76: 25-26. Qāf, 50: 39. Al-’Isrā, 17: 79. Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 2, Hadith No: 393; al-Tirmidhī, Ṣalāh, Hadith No: 149; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, I,382, III, 330, 331, 352. Al-Tirmidhī calls this hadith “ḥasan-ṣaḥiḥ”. For more information about the times of prayer see al-Taḥanawī, Iʿla al-Sunan, 1st ed., Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyya, Beirut 1418/1997, II, 3-67. Al-Bukhari, Mawāqīṭ, 1. Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 2; al-Tirmidhī, Mawāqīṭ, 1; al-Nasā’ī, Mawāqīṭ, 6, 10, 15; Ibn Ḥanbal, I, 383, II, 330; Malik, Muwaṭṭā’, Ṣalāh, 9. Al-Bukhari, Mawāqīṭ, 9, 10. Adhān, 18; Bad’ al-khalq, 10; Muslim, Masājid, 180, 181, 184, 186; Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 4. Al-Mawṣilī, Ikhtiyār, I, 38, 39, al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 508. Al-Baqara, 2: 238. Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 5; Ibn Ḥanbal, V, 8; Ibn Kathīr, Mukhtaṣaru Tafsīr ibn Kathīr, (critically ed. M. Ali al-Ṣabūnī) Beirut, 1981, I, 218. Malik, Muwaṭṭā’, Wuqūṭ, 5; Abū Dawūd, Ṣalāh, 5; Ibn Maja, Ṣalāh, 2; Ibn Ḥanbal, II, 236, 254, 260, 282. Malik, Muwaṭṭā’, Qur’ān, 46. Al-Ṣan’ānī, Subul al-Salām, I, 106. Akyüz, Vecdi, Mukayeseli İbadetler İlmihali, İz Yayıncılık, Istanbul, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 366-367. Al-Bayyinah, 98: 5. Al-Bukhari, Bad’ al-waḥy, 1; Muslim, ‘Imāra, 155. Al-Bukhari, Bad’ al-waḥy, 1, Imān, 41, Nikāḥ, 5, Ṭalāq, 11, Manaqib al-Anṣār, 45, Iṭq, 6, Aymān, 23, Hiyal, 1; Muslim, ‘Imāra, 155; Abū Dawūd, Ṭalāq, 11; al-Tirmidhī, Faḍā’il al-Jihād, 16; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 59, Ṭalāq, 24, Aymān, 19; Ibn Maja, Zuhd, 26. Jaziri, ibid, pp. 281-282. Al-Kāsānī, Badāyiʿ, I, 127 ff.; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 406 ff.; al-Zaylaī, Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāiq, I, 199 ff.; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, I, 185; Bilmen ibid, p. 118 ff. Al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 611; Bilmen, ibid, p. 120, 121.
Source: Basic Islamic Principles (ilmiḥal) According to the Four Sunni Schools With Evidence From The Sources of Islamic Law, Prof. Hamdi Döndüren, Erkam Publications