What are the wajib acts? What are the acts compulsory to perform during Hajj? What are the obligatory acts of Hajj?
1) Performing Saʿy
Saʿy literally means “walking fast, running and making an effort”. As an Islamic legal term related to hajj and ʿumra, saʿy refers to going on foot between the two hills named Safa and Marwa, located on the east side of the Kaʿba, seven times with the intention of performing saʿy, starting from the hill of Safa and ending at the hill of Marwa. Saʿy is completed with four goings and three comings. Each one of them going and coming is called one shawṭ. Thus the saʿy between Safa and Marwa consists of seven shawṭs. The distance between these two hills is about 350 meters.
Saʿy is wājib only for hajj or ʿumra, but there is no saʿy for supererogatory, qudūm, or farewell circumambulations. Therefore, a person who performs hajj or ʿumra can intend to perform saʿy after a farḍ or supererogatory circumambulation and ascends up the hill of Safa to a point from where the Kaʿba can be seen. Turning towards the Kaʿba, hands are raised and prayed and supplicated. Then he walks toward Marwa by reciting takbīrs, tahlīls, supplications, and salawāt al-sharīfa. On the hill of Marwa, he goes up to a place from where the Kaʿba can be seen. Turning towards the Kaʿba, takbīr, tahlīl, and salawāt al-sharīfa are recited by raising hands. The seven shawṭs of saʿy continue to be performed in this way.
According to three schools except for the Ḥanafis, saʿy is an essential pillar of hajj. The following is stated in the Qur’an, “Behold! Safa and Marwa are among the symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the season or at other times, should compass them round, it is no sin in them. And if anyone obeys his own impulse to good, be sure that Allah is He Who recognizes and knows.” The Prophet said, “Indeed, Allah has made saʿy obligatory upon you, so perform saʿy.” The origin of saʿy is based on the symbol of Ismāʿil’s mother Hagar running between these two hills in search of water. It is reported that these names were given to the hills because Adam (as), the pure and distinguished servant of Allah (Ṣafiyyullāh), lived at Safa and his wife Eve lived at Marwa.
Saʿy must be carried out after entering the state of iḥrām. This is because none of the rites of hajj or ʿumra can be performed before entering the state of iḥrām. However, it is not necessary to perform saʿy in the state of iḥrām. As a matter of fact, if a person who enters the state of iḥrām for hajj cannot leave the state of iḥrām before the first day of the feast of sacrifice, he can perform it in the state of iḥrām after a supererogatory circumambulation if he wishes to perform the pilgrimage before the ritual standing at Arafat. If one wishes to perform it after performing the farḍ ṭawāf after returning from Arafat, he can perform it without being in the state of iḥrām. This is what is in accordance with the Sunnah and is more virtuous. It is wājib to perform the saʿy for ʿumra in the state of iḥrām.
Since saʿy is not an act of worship by itself, it can be performed after a valid circumambulation as an act relying on it. This is the reason why the saʿy, which is intended to be done before the farḍ ṭawāf, needs to be performed after a supererogatory ṭawāf.
According to the Ḥanafis, four of the seven shawṭs of saʿy are the essential pillar and three are wājib. In the other three schools, all shawṭs are essential pillars.
Saʿy must begin on the foot of Safa and end at Marwa, and cover the full distance between Safa and Marwa in seven shawṭs.
2) The Ritual Standing (Waqfa) at Muzdalifah
Muzdalifah is a region between Arafat and Mina, within the borders of the Ḥaram. It is separated from Mina by a valley called Muḥassir. It is wājib for the pilgrim to stay in Muzdalifah even for a moment, from the dawn until the sun rises on the first day of the Eid. It is sunnah to spend the whole night there, and it is mustaḥab to perform the ritual of standing at the Hill of Kuzah, which is called al-Mashʿar al-Ḥaram.
The following is stated in the verse, “It is no crime in you if you seek of the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage). Then when you pour down from (Mount) Arafat, celebrate the praises of Allah at the Sacred Monument (al-Mashʿar al-Ḥaram), and celebrate His praises as He has directed you, even though, before this, you went astray.” Furthermore, the following is stated in the hadith, “Whoever is present at Dawn prayer, performs ritual standing with us until we leave, and has performed before the ritual standing at Arafat day or night, his pilgrimage will be complete.”
The time of ritual standing at Muzdalifah: According to the Ḥanafis, it is the period from dawn to sunrise on the first day of Eid. According to the Malikis, the period from sunset on the evening of Arafah until Fajr al-Ṣādiq on the morning of Eid; According to the Shafiʿis and the Ḥanbalis, it is the period from midnight until the time of Fajr al-Ṣādiq. Moreover, midnight is the middle of the period between sunset and Fajr al-Ṣādiq.
As in the ritual standing at Arafat, in the ritual standing at Muzdalifah, intention, and knowledge are not required, and those who are asleep, awake, or unconscious within the borders of Muzdalifah or pass by within the aforementioned periods fulfill this duty.
It is sunnah in all schools to spend the night in Muzdalifah and perform the dawn prayer early, to continue the ritual of standing with talbiyah, takbīr, tahlīl, dhikr, supplications, and asking forgiveness from Allah until close to the sunrise, and to move to Mina before the sun rises.
According to the Ḥanafis, it is wājib for pilgrims to perform the evening and night prayers as combined in Muzdalifah on the evening of the day of Arafa, either alone or in the congregation, and with jamʿ al-ta’hir during the time of night prayer; According to the Shafiʿis, it is sunnah. If these prayers are performed in Arafat or on the way before reaching Muzdalifah, and if Muzdalifah is reached before the time of commencement of night prayer, they must be re-performed according to Abu Ḥanīfa and Imam Muhammad. According to Abu Yusuf, although it is makrūḥ to perform them outside Muzdalifah, they do not need to be re-performed. Since it is makrūḥ to perform the supererogatory prayers between the obligatory cycles of prayers in combined prayers, the sunnah of the evening and the sunnah of the night prayer are abandoned. Evening and night prayers are performed together with one adhān and one iqāmah. Since the night prayer is performed at its own time here, there is no need for a second call in the form of iqāmah.
If the ritual standing at Muzdalifah is abandoned due to a valid excuse, nothing is required. This is because the Prophet stated that weak and helpless people who could not make this ritual standing could go directly to Mina and he did not order expiation about them. However, abandonment without a valid excuse requires the penalty of offering a sacrifice.
3) Stoning the Devil in Mina
The Arabic equivalent of “stoning the devil” is “ramy al-jamarāt (throwing pebbles/small stones at the Jamras)”. Jabir (ra) said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah (saw) throwing pebbles on the day of sacrifice while on his riding beast and saying, ‘Learn your rites, for I do not know whether I am likely to perform Hajj after this occasion.’”
On the days of the feast, it is wājib for the pilgrims to throw seven pebbles by saying “Bismillāhi Allāhu Akbar”, at the clusters of large stones called Small Jamra, Middle Jamra, and Jamra al-Aqaba colloquially called small, medium and large devils respectively. On the first day, only seven pebbles are thrown at Jamra al-Aqaba. Mina is a region between Muzdalifah and Mecca, within the borders of the Ḥaram. According to the Ḥanafis, it is sunnah to spend the night in Mina on the days of stoning the devil. According to the other three schools, it is obligatory for those who have no excuse to be in Mina for more than half of each of these nights. Otherwise, punishment is required.
Throwing pebbles at the jamras is symbolic of stoning Satan who tried to convince Ibrahim (as), his wife Hagar, and his son not to jointly agree to sacrifice Ismāʿil in this region.
Each one of the seven pebbles must be individually thrown by hand, and fall into or near the stone pool. Those who are able must throw the pebbles themselves. Those who are unable to do it may throw them by means of a proxy. Those who are able enough to perform their prayers standing cannot appoint a proxy for stoning the devil. Accordingly, those who are too sick or old to walk and pregnant women who are afraid of being harmed can have the pebbles thrown by proxy. However, it is more appropriate for those who hope to recover before the stone-throwing time ends or to throw pebbles stones in more secluded times of the day, to try to throw the pebbles themselves.
The time for stone-throwing: It is the period between fajr al-ṣādiq on the first day of the Eid until the sun sets on the fourth day.
The first day of the Eid: On this day, only seven pebbles are thrown at Jamra al-Aqaba. According to the Ḥanafis, the time of throwing stones on the first day is the period from the time of fajr al-ṣādiq until the next day’s fajr al-ṣādiq. During this period, it is sunnah to stone the jamra from sunrise until noon, it is permissible to throw the stones from zawāl until sunset, and it is makrūḥ to throw pebbles before sunrise in the morning or after sunset in the evening. There is a consensus that stoning the devil before dawn is not valid on the day of Eid. On the other hand, those who have a valid excuse, such as weakness, being a shepherd, or having a duty, can throw the pebbles before sunrise or at night after the fajr al-ṣādiq. On the other hand, the reason why it is not appropriate to throw stones at night is the difficulty of throwing small stones or pebbles in the dark. However, today, this difficulty has been removed due to lighting, and it has been deemed more appropriate for the elderly and women, who would have difficulty throwing pebbles during the daytime, to fulfill this duty at these times both for themselves and for the other as it will reduce the daytime crowd.
According to the Malikis, the time for stoning the devil begins with the dawn on the first day of the feast and continues until the sun sets. According to the Shafiʿis and the Ḥanbalis, its time starts from midnight and lasts until the dawn of the next day. It is sufficient to throw pebbles at any moment during this period. However, it is makrūḥ to throw the pebbles before the sun rises, it is sunnah to throw them between sunrise and the time of zawāl, and it is permissible to delay it between zawāl and sunset even without a valid excuse, and it is makrūḥ to postpone it until after sunset without a valid excuse.
The second and third days of the feast: On these days, a total of 21 pebbles are thrown at each Jamra, seven each. The time to throw pebbles during these two days is the period from zawāl until the next day’s fajr al-ṣādiq. Small stones or pebbles can be thrown at any time during this specified period. It is not permissible to throw a pebble before zawāl on these two days.
The fourth day of Eid: According to Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, and the imams of the three other schools, the duration of stoning the devil on the fourth day is like the previous two days. According to Abu Ḥanīfah, on the fourth day, the time of stoning the devil begins with the fajr al-ṣādiq. However, it is makrūḥ to throw pebbles before the sun rises, it is permissible from sunrise to the time of zawāl, and sunnah to throw them after the time of zawāl.
Those who are busy leaving Mecca and preparing for the road on the fourth day may abandon throwing the pebbles on the fourth day. Those who will not throw pebbles on the fourth day of Eid should leave Mina before the fajr al-ṣādiq on the fourth day, according to the Ḥanafis, and before the sun sets on the third day according to the other three schools.
The number of pebbles to be thrown; On the first day, 7 pebbles are thrown at Jamra al-Aqaba, and on the other days, 21 pebbles a day are thrown at the small, medium, and Aqaba (large) Jamra, respectively 7 pebbles at each, the total of which in three days becomes 70. If the pebbles of the last day are not thrown, this number drops to 49. As each pebble is thrown, one says “Bismillāhi Allāhu Akbar”. If the pebble does not reach its place or falls far away, another pebble is thrown in its place. The remaining pebble is given to a person who needs them or left in a suitable place. It is not necessary to bury them in the ground.
Those who cannot throw pebbles by going to the location of jamras in person due to a valid excuse such as illness, old age, and disability can have their small stones or pebbles thrown by a proxy. The measure of a valid excuse is that one is unable to pray in a standing position. Those who cannot get close to the jamras during the day due to the crowd can throw their pebbles at a secluded time at night. It is not permissible for those who are able to throw pebbles at night to throw the pebbles through a proxy. The deputy first throws his own pebbles and then the pebbles of the person for whom he acts as deputy.
Just as it is wājib to throw each day’s pebbles within its own time on stone-throwing days, it is also wājib to make up for throwing the pebbles that could not be thrown on time, within the stone-throwing period. When the sun goes down on the fourth day of the feast, throwing the pebbles will no longer be valid.
According to Abu Ḥanīfa and Imam Malik, the pebbles that could not be thrown on time are under penalty even if they are made up within the period of throwing the pebbles. According to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, if throwing these pebbles is made up within the throwing period, the penalty is dropped.
Offering a sacrifice is required if most or all of the seven pebbles cannot be thrown. If only two or three pebbles are not thrown, one must give alms as a penalty for each pebble. It is mustaḥab for seven pebbles to be collected from Muzdalifah and thrown into Jamra al-Aqaba on the first day, and there is no special place for the collection of the remaining 63 pebbles.
According to the Shafiʿis and the Ḥanbalis, if the pebbles that cannot be thrown on time are thrown before the sun sets on the fourth day of the Eid at the latest, it is considered a one-time fulfillment of the duty, not a make-up, and there is no penalty for the delay.
Whether it is a one-time fulfillment or a make-up, the pebble-throwing process ends with the sunset, on the fourth day of the feast.
4) Shaving or Shortening The Hair (Halq or Taqsīr)
Shaving or shortening the hair at the end of the hajj or ʿumra is a symbol of exiting the state of iḥrām. Iḥrām cannot be exited unless this act is done. Those who make the ifrād pilgrimage have their cut or shaved in Mina, on the first day of the feast, after throwing seven stones at Jamra al-Aqaba, and the pilgrims who combine the pilgrimage and ʿumra in the form of the tamattūʿ and qirān pilgrimage have their hair cut or shaved in the Ḥaram of Mecca after slaughtering their sacrifices of gratitude following stoning the devil, and on one of the first three days of the feast. It is wājib to cut or shorten at least a quarter of it. Shaving or cutting the entire hair is sunnah.
According to the Shafiʿis, it is wājib to shave or shorten three strands of hair for the fulfillment of the wājib, and for the Malikis and the Ḥanbalis to shave the whole hair. Schools have compared the amount of hair to be shaved or shortened to the amount of wiping of the head during wuḍū.
Women cut a little from the tip of a quarter of their hair. Thus, they exit the state of iḥrām. The following is stated in the Qur’an, “Then let them end their untidiness.”
Ibn Umar (r . anhuma) says that “tafath” mentioned in the verse means shaving the hair and leaving the iḥrām and wearing normal clothes.
Those who enter the state of iḥrām for hajj do not come out of the state of iḥrām by shaving before the fajr al-ṣādiq of the first day of the Eid, and those who enter the state of iḥrām for ʿumra do not come out of the state of iḥrām by shaving until they have completed at least four shawṭs of circumambulation of ʿumra. If otherwise, they have committed a prohibition of iḥrām and a penalty is required. However, since it is obligatory for those who perform ʿumra to perform saʿy in the state of iḥrām, they must shave after performing the saʿy.
During the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (saw) first threw seven pebbles at Jamra al-Aqaba in Mina on the first day of the feast, slaughtered his sacrifices, then shaved, and went to Mecca on the same day, performed the circumambulation, and finally returned to Mina.
According to Abu Ḥanīfa, it is wājib to follow the order in the first three of these acts, otherwise offering a sacrifice (dam) is required. According to Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, and the other three schools, it is sunnah to follow the order. Although it is makrūḥ not to follow the order, it does not require offering a sacrifice. However, according to the Malikis, throwing small stones at Jamra al-Aqaba must be done before shaving and the obligatory circumambulation. As for the obligatory circumambulation, there is a consensus that it is a sunnah, not an obligation to observe the order. Accordingly, those who perform the ifrād pilgrimage leave the state of iḥrām by shaving or having their hair cut after throwing pebbles at Jamra al-Aqaba on the first day of the feast, while those who perform the pilgrimages of tamattūʿ and qirān leave the state of iḥrām by shaving or having their hair cut after throwing the pebbles and offering the sacrifice of gratitude.
It is narrated from Anas (ra) that he said that the Messenger of Allah (saw) came to Mina, arrived at the jamrahs, and stoned them. Then he went to the place where he stayed in Mina and offered a sacrifice. Then he showed the barber the right and left sides of his head and told him to cut his hair.
According to a narration from Abu Hurayra, the Prophet supplicated twice for the one who shaved his head while exiting the state of iḥrām, asking Allah’s forgiveness twice, and when he was asked to pray for those who cut their hair, he prayed for them during the third time. Therefore, it is considered more virtuous to shave the hair off when leaving the state of iḥrām than to shorten it.
The following is stated in the verse, “Truly did Allah fulfill the vision for His Messenger: you shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear…” Before the expedition of Hudaybiyya, the Prophet (saw) dreamed of the situation described in this verse, and thus gave the good news of the conquest of Mecca and the pilgrimage to his Companions.
5) Farewell Circumambulation (Sadar)
It is wājib for those coming from outside the borders of mīqāts to circumambulate the Kaʿba when leaving Mecca after completing the pilgrimage. It is narrated from Umar, “Whoever performs pilgrimage, his last intention should be Baytullāh. However, menstruating women are exceptions for the Messenger of Allah (saw) gave them permission.” Accordingly, the conditions of the farewell circumambulation are for the pilgrim’s coming to the Hijaz from outside, not being in menses or in the post-partum bleeding period, intending to circumambulate, and performing it after the obligatory circumambulation (tawāf al-ziyārah).
Some other wājib acts that complement the essential pillars or the conditions of hajj are as follows:
6) Entering the state of ihram from the places called mīqāt
Those who come from outside the borders of the mīqāt (āfāqīs) to perform hajj or ʿumra should not pass the borders of mīqāt without entering the state of iḥrām. If a person who passes the mīqāt without entering the state of iḥrām returns, enters the iḥrām and recites the talbiyah, nothing is required. The penalty of offering a sacrifice will be relinquished. Ibn Abbas (r. anhuma) said to the person who entered the state of iḥrām after the passing the borders of mīqāt, “Go back to the mīqāt and recite the talbiyah. Otherwise, you will not have performed the pilgrimage.” However, according to the Ḥanafis, it is permissible and even more virtuous to enter the state of iḥrām before coming to the places of mīqāt.
The five places of mīqāt mentioned in the hadith are as follows: Dhu’l-Hulayfa for the people of Madinah, Juhfa for the people of Damascus, Qarn al-Manāzil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. These are the places of mīqāt for those who want to perform hajj and ʿumra and for travelers from other towns coming from the direction of a specified region or country. Those who live within the boundaries of mīqāt enter the state of iḥrām where their families live. The people of Mecca enter iḥrām in Mecca. In a report from Jabir Ibn Abdillah (ra), narrated as a marfū hadith, Dhatu Irq was added as a place of mīqāt for the Iraqis.
If a person who passes the borders of mīqāt without entering the state of iḥrām goes back and enters the state of iḥrām before starting any of the rites of hajj or ʿumra, such as ṭawāf al-qudūm or ʿumra ṭawāf, the punishment will be removed. Instead of the mīqāt place that this person passes without entering the state of iḥrām, it is also permissible to go to an mīqāt place closer to where he is and enter the state of iḥrām there. If one of the rites of hajj or ʿumra has been started after passing the borders of mīqāt without entering the state of iḥrām, the penalty will not be removed even if the person goes back to the place of mīqāt. After offering a sacrifice, the hajj or ʿumra continues where it was left.
7) Abandoning the things prohibited to the person in the state of iḥrām
It is also necessary for a person who enters the state of iḥrām for hajj or ʿumra to abide by some rules called “prohibitions of the state of iḥrām” as long as he stays in iḥrām. Otherwise, he may have to fulfill one of the punishments we will explain below, such as offering a sacrifice, giving charity, or fasting. Wearing stitched clothes, hunting prey, cutting or shortening hair, and engaging in offensive words and behaviors while in the state of iḥrām are among these prohibitions.
8) To perform ritual standing in Arafat from the time of zawāl until sundown.
9) To perform the tawāf al-ziyārah on the first, second or third day of the Eid al-Aḍḥā.
10) To be in the state of wuḍū and to cover the awrah during circumambulation
A one-round turn without being in the state of wuḍū must be re-performed again in the state of wuḍū.
11) During circumambulation having the Kaʿba on one’s left side and keeping oneself to the right of the Kaʿba
Those who have a valid excuse can perform ṭawāf on a mount.
12) To start tawaf from Ḥajar al-Aswad or somewhere in line with it.
13) To perform tawaf by walking around outside the place called Ḥatīm
Because the place in the form of a half-crescent called Ḥatīm is accepted as a section from the Kaʿba. If the shawṭs performed without going outside the Ḥatīm are not re-performed or at least the missing part is not completed by going around the Ḥatīm, a penalty is required.
14) To complete the visiting circumambulation, whose four shawṭs are obligatory, to seven shawts.
15) To perform a two-cycle prayer after each circumambulation:
It is wājib to perform a two-cycle ṭawāf prayer after each circumambulation, whether it is farḍ, wājib, or supererogatory. If it is not a reprehensible time to perform the prayer, it is mustaḥab to perform this prayer immediately after circumambulation, without a break. Even if it is performed later, it will be accepted as performed on time. This is because it is an independent wājib prayer like the witr prayer and is not one of the wājib acts of pilgrimages or circumambulation.
It is makrūḥ to perform ṭawāfs consecutively without performing the ṭawāf prayer in between.
It is mustaḥab to perform the ṭawāf prayer behind the station of Ibrahim. If there is no room there, it can be performed in another suitable place inside the mosque. It is makrūḥ to perform it outside the ḥaram area. As in the iḥrām prayer, it is mustaḥab to recite surah al-Kafirūn in the first cycle and surah al-Ikhlas in the second cycle of this prayer. Although there is no makrūḥ time for ṭawāf, according to the Ḥanafis, the ṭawāf prayer is not performed when the sun rises, when it is at its zenith, or when it sets. Moreover, it is performed after the obligatory cycles of dawn and late afternoon prayers.
If the time for reprehensibility commences after ṭawāf, first the evening prayer, then the ṭawāf prayer, and then the sunnah cycles are performed. Farḍ, make-up, or votive prayers do not replace the ṭawāf prayer. If a small child is circumambulated, the ṭawāf prayer is not required for him.
According to the Shafiʿi school, the ṭawāf prayer for the ṭawāf performed in times of karaha can be performed at that time.
Abandoning one of the wājib acts of pilgrimages does not hinder the validity of the pilgrimage. However, it is necessary to sacrifice an animal as a penalty and the meat of the sacrifice is distributed to the poor of Mecca. However, when the abandoned wājib is performed again, the penalty is relinquished, for it is like repeating a circumambulation performed without being in the state of wuḍū by performing the wuḍū.
 Al-Kasanī, ibid, II, 125, 133, 143, ff.; 148. Al-Baqara, 2: 158. Al-Shawkanī, Nayl al-Awṭār, V, 50. See al-Bukhari, Anbiya, 4/142. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, IV, 439. Al-Kasanī, ibid, II, 134 ff.; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, II, 234; Ibn Qudāmah, ibid, III, 385-389. Al-Baqara, 2: 198. Al-Nasā’ī, Manāsik, 211; al-Tirmidhī, Ḥajj, 57. Al-Kasanī, ibid, II, 135. ff.; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, II, 169; al-Maydanī, ibid, I, 186 ff.; Ibn Qudāmah, ibid, II, 417-426, 450-456. Muslim, Ḥajj, 12, 13; Abū Dawūd, Manāsik, 23; al-Nasā’ī, Manāsik, 220; al-Shawkanī. ibid, V, 65. According to Hasan Ibn Ziyad, while throwing stones one says “Allahu akbar raghman li’sh-shaytān wa hizbihi”; According to some, it is said, “O Allah, accept my Ḥajj, honor my efforts and forgive my sin.” Al-Zuhaylī, ibid, III, 192; See al-Ṣaffāt, 37: 100-108. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, IV, 552, 553. Al-Ḥajj, 22: 29. Al-Shawkanī, ibid, V, 68. Al-Shawkanī, ibid, V, 69. Al-Fatḥ, 48: 27. Al-Zaylaī, Naṣb al-Rāya, III, 89. Al-Kasanī, ibid, II, 127 ff., 142 ff.; al-Maydanī, ibid, I, 148, 149, 191; Ibn Qudāmah, ibid, III, 370, 440, 442, 444, 458-465. Al-Kasanī, ibid, II, 165-167; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, III, 76. Al-Bukhari, Ḥajj, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, Sayd, 18; Muslim, Ḥajj, 11, 12; Abū Dawūd, Manāsik, 8; al-Nasā’ī, Manāsik, 19, 20-23; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, ibid, I, 238. Muslim, Ḥajj, 18; See al-Bukhari, Ḥajj, 13; Abū Dawūd, Manāsik, 8.