Who is Yaqub Charkhi? What kind of person Yaqub Charkhi ? When did Yaqub Charkhi live?
Yaqub Charkhi [d. 1447]
Mawlana Yaqub ibn Uthman Charkhi (may Allah have mercy on him) was born in the town of Charkh, which is in the province of Luger between the towns of Kabul and Ghazna, or in the village of Serrez in Charkh. It is estimated that he was born in the middle of the 8th century after the hijrah. His father was an ascetic and a very pious man. When his neighbours offered him some water in a glass that belonged to an orphan he was so pious that he did not accept it. Charkhi speaks of this event as follows:
“Anyone who uses the possessions of the orphans will find no benefit in them”.
His father’s and his grandfather’s graves are still oft-visited sites just as his own is. Muhammad Zahid, Dervish Muhammad and Khwajagi Imkanagi, the blessed faces of the Naqshiband chain are from his blessed lineage.
When he was young Yaqub Charkhi wished to go to the big cities to study, however this did not take place. At that time he saw Khidr (peace be upon him) in his dream. Khidr said to him:
“Make plans to travel in order to study and remember me whenever you need something where you go”. Charkhi said:
“I did as Khidr said and I realised that my dream was from Allah (rahmani)”.
Yaqub Charkhi (may Allah have mercy on him) studied in the madrasas of Egypt, Herat, and Bukhara. Wherever he went he was extremely sensitive about eating lawful food and avoiding food of doubtful origins. For instance, when he saw that many of the members of the waqf foundations in Herat were not very careful about taqwa, and halal and haram, and that this was a cause for doubt and suspicion, he did not eat their food. He only ate at the Abdullah Ansari Tekke waqf, which was trustworthy.
After studying many of the religious sciences, Charkhi went from Herat to Bukhara in the hijri year 782 (1380AD). Here he could not decide which of the sciences to specialise in. During those days he saw the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) in his dream reciting from the Qur’an, slowly letter by letter. He interpreted this dream as being an indication to study the science of tafsir and he began to occupy himself with this.
He also studied other sciences alongside this. His teachers gave him permission (ijaza) to give fatwa or rulings about religious matters. After finishing his studies, at the time that he was about to return to his hometown, he met Bahauddin Naqshiband (may Allah have mercy on them both) in Bukhara and made the following request:
“Please keep a place for me in your heart”.
Shah Naqshiband replied:
“Do you come to visit us now that you are about to leave?”
“I love you, Sir!”
Shah Naqshiband asked:
“You are a great and righteous man whom everyone loves and admires”.
Shah Naqshiband said:
“You should have a stronger reason than that. What if the love and confidence that people have in me is not from Allah?”
“According to a trustworthy hadith, when Allah, Most High, loves one of his servants he places love for him in the hearts of the people (that is, the people love him too). Hearing this reply Shah Naqshiband smiled and said:
“We are Azizan”.
Azizan was the title of Ali Ramitani and with these words Shah Naqshiband was saying that they were the representative of Ali Ramitani in these times (may Allah be pleased with them all).
These words deeply startled Yaqub Charkhi because just a month before, he was addressed in his dream as follows: “Be a follower of Azizan”. He had forgotten this until now.
Charkhi said again:
“Do not forget me in your heart”.
Shah Naqshiband said:
“Whenever somebody made this request from Azizan (Ali Ramitani) he would say: “There is no room left in our hearts for other than Allah Most High, so leave us a reminder so that when we see it we will remember you”. But it seems you have nothing to leave behind”. Then he took off his cap and handed it to Yaqub Charkhi saying:
“Keep this and whenever you see it remember us”.
Then he gave him the following advice:
“Be sure to go and see Mawlana Tajaddin on this journey of yours for he is from the awliyaullah”.
Startled, Yaqub Charkhi said to himself: “I am returning to my hometown via Balkh and he is in the opposite direction”. Eventually he set out for Balkh. However something happened on the way that necessitated that he go to Dasht-i Kulek and remembering Shah Naqshiband’s words he was amazed. There he attended the talks of Mawlana Tajaddin and his love for Shah Naqshiband increased even more. He returned to Bukhara with the desire to be his disciple.
On the way he saw a meczub whom he trusted and he asked him only the following:
“Should I go?”
The meczub replied:
“Go quickly”. He then drew many lines in the ground. Charkhi said to himself: “Let me count these lines and if they come out an odd number then this will show that my desire is true. For Allah is witr and He loves the witr”. The number of lines turned out to be an odd number.
He stayed in his house in the district of Fathabad in Bukhara. As a result of the istikhara prayers he made and the dreams he saw he became convinced that Shah Naqshiband was a great friend of Allah.
He said to himself:
“With the help of Allah Most High a desire arose in me. Divine help became my guide and directed me to the spiritual gatherings of Khwaja Naqshiband. I went to him and was honoured with becoming aligned with him. I was subject to his compliments and gracious bounties.
With the help of Allah, Most High, I realised that Khwaja was one of the great awliyaullah and a perfect master with the capacity to perfect others. After many signs and dreams I opened up the Holy Qur’an at a random page to see what it would say to me. I was faced with the following verse:
‘They are the ones Allah has guided, so be guided by their guidance’ (An’am, 6:90) .
Yaqub Charkhi went to the village of Qasr-i Arifan to become a disciple of Shah Naqshiband and was welcomed by him. After prayer they talked and at the end of the talk Shah Naqshiband said:
“We cannot accept any disciple of our own account. Let us see what appears tonight and if you be accepted then we too shall accept you”.
Yaqub Charkhi expressed his fears and anxieties of that evening as follows:
“I have never passed a more difficult night than that one. I was thinking to myself: Will this great door open for me? Will I meet with acceptance or rejection?”
Spending a very difficult night Charkhi then performed the dawn prayer with Shah Naqshiband. After the prayer Naqshiband said:
“May you be blessed we have received an indication of acceptance”.
Yaqub Charkhi spent some time with his shaykh and then requesting permission he left Bukhara. Naqshiband said to him:
“Take what you have received from us to the servants of Allah. To those who are near you, address them with your speech and for those who are far, guide them with your writings, either by letter or by book”. He also advised him to continue attending the assemblies of Alauddin Attar.
His Years of Sayr-u Suluq
The following is narrated by Yaqub Charkhi:
“After I occupied myself for a period of time with the wuquf-i adadi dhikr as ordered by Shah Naqshiband, I dreamed that I was in a large clean pool of water. When I told the Shah of my dream he said:
“This dream is a sign that your worship and obedience has been accepted by Allah. The heart has been revived through the means of dhikr. That is, just as water brings the body to life, so too the water of dhikr has allowed the heart to come alive”.
Another time Yaqub Charkhi talked about the sayr-u suluq as follows:
“The aim of tasawwuf is for the heart to find peace with Allah Most High and togetherness with one’s Lord. This can be achieved through the path of sayr-u suluq. Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
“May Allah have mercy on the one who learns and teaches others what they must do in the world and how to prepare for the hereafter”. Thus the disciple who travels this spiritual path in this world will be pleasant in both this world and the next”.
“Those who desire the hereafter in this realm and perform righteous deeds will be honoured with witnessing the Beauty of Allah. The Holy Qur’an states:
“But as for anyone who desires the hereafter, and strives for it with the striving it deserves, being a believer, the striving of such people will be gratefully acknowledged” (Isra, 17:19)
Those who fall prey to their nafs and become lost in heedlessness however will be deprived of this witnessing and meeting with their Lord. The Holy Qur’an has the following to say about them:
‘As for those who do not expect to meet Us and are content with the life of this world and at rest in it, and those who are heedless of Our Signs, their shelter will be the Fire because of what they earned’ (Yunus, 10:7-8).
Another verse states:
‘We created many of the jinn and mankind for Hell. They have hearts they do not understand with. They have eyes they do not see with. They have ears they do not hear with. Such people are like cattle. No, they are even further astray! They are the unaware’ (A’raf, 7:179).
“The sayr-u suluq requires patience, discipline and striving. The traveller on this path must first of all strive to bring life to his nights as the prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) did. The most important benefit of the tahajjud prayer is that it is a moment in time when a person can listen to oneself, when one can direct one’s attention to one’s nafs and take himself to account. He should busy himself with recitation of Qur’an and performing tasbihat and relying upon Allah and should distance everything other than Him from his heart and contemplate deeply upon the reasons for the creation of the universe”.
Waking up for tahajjud prepares the disciple for the awrad he has to recite. In addition the traveller should also contemplate on death in the darkness of the night. The prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said:
“Make much remembrance of the destroyer of all pleasures” (Tirmidhi, Zuhd, 4/2307).
Also the traveller should contemplate on the creation of the universe, and the manifestations of divine power so as to perceive his own powerlessness in an effort to increase his knowledge and love of Allah. After this preparation of the heart, it is now time to repent. Then comes the abandoning of vile traits and the adoption of beautiful traits that is, purification of one’s nafs. Then one can continue in one’s vocal dhikr and the dhikr of the subtle faculties, having acquired a great feeling of cleansing. By repeating this deed everyday everything other than Allah will be removed from one’s heart in time, and the person will turn to Allah, eventually reaching the station of witnessing Him.
After leaving Bukhara, Yaqub Charkhi resided for a time in Kash. During this time he received news of the death of Shah Naqshiband. Due to his great sorrow, Charkhi passed some difficult days, and then went to Alauddin Attar (may Allah have mercy on them) under instruction from his shaykh. He continued attending his assemblies for approximately eleven years.
His Method of Guiding Others
After the death of Alauddin Attar, Yaqub Charkhi went to settle in the village of Hisar and then Hulgatu and continued to guide the people there. He carried out this sacred duty for approximately fifty years. He said:
“When I was deprived of the advice of my Master, I tried to carry out his command to transmit whatever came to me from him to others” and so to the best of my ability I talked with those who were near me and sent letters to those who were distant, fully knowing that I am not worthy of this. However one must believe that the commands of the Friends of Allah are not without wisdom”.
Yaqub Charkhi placed great importance on uprightness. He divided it into two, that of the outer (zahir) and that of the inner (batin). The outer aspects of istiqama are to perform one’s worship at certain times, the prayer, the fasting, going for hajj, paying zakat, and paying attention to virtuous behaviour towards others, and abiding by the commands and prohibitions of the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
The inner aspect is the development of an awareness in the heart that one is constantly in the presence of Allah and this is true faith. In this situation then istiqama envelops every moment of one’s life. This is one of the most important duties of the believer.
The Holy Qur’an states:
‘…Only in the remembrance of Allah can the heart find peace’ (Ra‘d, 13:18).
The awareness of being ever in the presence of Allah, that is being able to live the feeling of ihsan, is the greatest condition for attaining sainthood. Almighty Allah is closer to the human being than all else. While he is with us day and night, we occupy ourselves with other things. Whereas the Holy Qur’an states:
‘Standing over you are guardians, noble, recording, who know what you do’ (Infitar, 82:10-12).
In this verse lies the following indirect caution: “We are always with you so why are you busy with other than Us?”.
Yaqub Charkhi was a scholar who had acquired knowledge of the outer sciences and a perfected guide who had advanced in the inner science of tasawwuf. His ten works which have reached us today are a patent proof of his competence in this field.
Yaqub Charkhi would recite a certain amount from the Qur’an everyday so that he would complete a recitation once a week. He placed great importance on conversing with the righteous and said that this was how the heart would be freed from everything other than Allah. He also gave great importance to silent dhikr (khafi dhikr). He believed that the Sufi should behave with humility, like an ordinary person in order to conceal his spiritual state. However, the also advised that one preserve one’s dignity and honour.
Yaqub Charkhi would give more importance to reality and uprightness rather than dreams. He did not approve of some people who placed extreme importance on the path of dream interpretation.
His Love for Allah
Yaqub Charkhi speaks of one of his sons who had a beautiful character and nature. He completed his sayr-u suluq in a mere four months but passed away when he was only seventeen years old.
Even in the last period of his life, Yaqub Charkhi would express the sorrow he felt at the death of his son. However, the love he felt for his son in no way overshadowed the love he felt for Allah. His real love was for Almighty Allah. Every time he turned to face his son’s grave he would say some lines to the effect of the following:
“One cannot travel the path of Tawheed with gossip and vain talk. What is needed for you is the pleasure of the Friend”.
He would then say:
“There is no room for two beloveds in one heart. All of one’s loves should be melted down in the love of Allah”.
The purpose of the creation of the universe, which is similar to the human being in many ways, is that Allah Most High willed to display His Divine artistry and enable the entire universe to witness His Beauty and Perfection.
In that case, we need to frequently contemplate and take heed from the universe which is the place of manifestation of Almighty Allah’s attributes. If man were to compare himself to the world in which he lives and to the Sun and the stars, he would realise just how small and forlorn he is. Almighty Allah then draws the attention of man to Himself, to the universe and to other creatures and says: “Let the human being consider then from what he has been created’ (Tariq, 86:5). In that case, man’s distinguishing feature and true worth lies not in his material aspect but in his spiritual nature.
The Most Beautiful Names
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said:
“Allah Most High has ninety nine names. The one who memorises them will go to Paradise” (Bukhari, Dawat, 68).
The meaning of the word ‘memorise’ (hifz) is not merely to recite the names themselves but rather to deeply contemplate on their inner meaning and live in accordance with them. That is, to become exposed to and influenced by the manifestation of the beautiful attributes of Allah.
If a believer enumerates one of the names of Allah repeatedly, contemplates upon it deeply and acts in accordance with its meaning, then he will be subject to its manifestation.
Every human being should strive to learn the names of Almighty Allah in accordance with his capacity. As the human being reflects on the attributes of Allah’s Names in his own state and behaviour, his perfection increases and as his perfection increases he becomes like a clear mirror reflecting these Names.
The reflections of some of Allah’s Names and attributions in the human being are as follows:
The names of al-Rahman and al-Rahim point to the heart and the body. If the heart occupies itself with dhikr and the body with worship (‘ibadah) then that person will be shown mercy.
The effect of the name al-Malik on the arif (knower) is that he does not become deceived by the fleeting kingdoms of apparent rulers in this world and knows them to be powerless. Thus, he does not concern himself with them but worships only Allah.
The effect of the name al-Quddus on the servant is that he cleanses his heart of human ties and remains distant from the caprices and desires of his nafs and from the whisperings of Satan. Thus he is able to follow the commands of the religion in every circumstance and with great passion.
The person who is subject to the manifestation of the name al-Mu’min is distanced from everything other than Allah and spreads mercy from his spirit to all of creation. He imbues trust in everyone and protects the poor and lonely.
The one who is subject to the name al-Mutakabbir reaches the state of annihilation. We came to this world without having paid any price or with any capital and everything we possess, even our faith, is by the grace of Almighty Allah.
In return for this grace and these bounties the servant is not deceived by the fleeting bounties of this world and even of the hereafter and turns to Allah only. They are in a constant state of praise, gratitude and remembrance of Allah.
Those who are subject to the names of al-Khaliq, al-Bari and al-Musawwir transfer their gaze from the creatures to the Creator. They ponder on the divine artistry in all creatures.
Those who are subject to the names al-Sattar and al-Ghaffar conceal other people’s faults, forgive them their defects and offer them advice.
Those who are subject to the name al-Qahhar struggle against their evil-commanding self. A life of piety is a never-ending battle in which no truce is ever made with the self.
The effect of the name al-Razzaq is that the servant never displays their needs to anyone other than Allah. They do not become enveloped by daily sorrows and they are freed from worrying about their provision.
The effect of the name of al-Fattah is to help the innocent and try to eradicate the oppression of the oppressors.
The effect of the name al-Alim is that the servant gains knowledge of the inner and outer sciences. On account of this knowledge the servant becomes a person of piety and will be able to protect themselves from sin.
The effect of the name al-Basit is patience in times of constriction and gratitude in times of ease and comfort.
The effect of the name of al-Basir is that the servant strives to reach the state of ‘ihsan’ by constantly watching over their own state, words and acts.
The effect of the name of al-Hakam is that the servant wholeheartedly accepts the commands of Allah and is thus distanced from the people of falsehood.
The effect of the name al-Hafiz is that the servant is kept distant from the caprices of his soul, from passions and from anger.
The effect of the name al-Hakim is that the servant understands the aim in the purpose of creation and pleads and supplicates as follows: ‘…Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire’ (Al’i Imran, 3:191).
The effect of the name al-Wadud on the traveller is that he befriends Allah and the friends of Allah. His love is directed to Almighty Allah and to those He loves.
The effect of the name al-Ba’ith is that the servant prepares for the hereafter and strives to revive dead hearts by guiding them. A heart that is heedless of Allah is in reality dead, even though it appears to be alive. To revive the hearts is possible by living the truth and spreading it.
The effects of the names al-Wajid, al-Majid, al-Samad and al-Muahhir are that the servant knows himself to be needy, powerless and weak. All dignity and favours are from Allah and all obedience, worship and prayers are due to Him.
The effect of the name al-Muntaqim is to continue the struggle in the greater and lesser jihad.
The effect of the name al-Badi’ is to ponder on the flows of divine power throughout the universe and to contemplate on His eternal and extraordinary artistry.
The effect of the name al-Warith is that the servant does not attribute anything to rulers or kings but is aware that everything is under the power of Allah.
The effect of the name al-Sabur is that the servant shows perseverance in his affairs; he is wary of sinning, continues in his worship and is patient in the face of calamities.
Yaqub Charkhi (may Allah have mercy on him) gave great importance to both physical and spiritual cleanliness. He would say:
“Know that cleanliness gains for the servant the friendship of Allah. Almighty Allah befriends those who cleanse themselves of filth… outer cleanliness aids in inner cleanliness”.
In regards to spiritual cleanliness he said:
“When the heart is purified of vile traits and is adorned with beautiful ones, it will reach salvation. A person can never be free from the calamities of both worlds as long as their heart has not reached salvation. Allah Most High said:
“…the Day when neither wealth nor sons will be of any use –except to those who come to Allah with sound and flawless hearts’ (Shura, 26:88-89).
Thus, to attain divine mercy is only possible through maintaining a sound heart”.
A sound heart is one that is purified of all masiwa (that is, everything than Allah) and is always together with Allah. It is one that does not harm any of Allah’s creatures nor is it harmed or offended by them. It is a heart that forgives for the sake of Allah and forgets the wrongs done to it.
Yaqub Charkhi also said:
“Death that takes place without having reached Allah is an ordinary death. What will allow one to reach one’s aim is to ‘die before you die’, that is to abandon the desires of your nafs. In other words, it is to reach the state of annihilation (fana). In this situation then the heart is cleansed of all vile traits and is adorned with praiseworthy character, thus giving way to inner and outer cleanliness. This is why the traveller is ever in need of following in every matter a perfected and perfecting Sufi master”.
According to Yaqub Charkhi the verse: ‘He who has purified himself will have success’ (Al-Ala, 87:14) is an indication that in the sayr-u suluq one must first of all purify one’s nafs through tawbah (repentance) and then remember Allah through one’s tongue and other faculties.
There is some dispute about the date of Yaqub Charkhi’s (may Allah have mercy on him) death but generally it is accepted that he passed away in the hijri year 851, or 1447 AD. His tomb is in the village of Hulgatu in Hisar. This place is an important visiting site approximately 5km from Dushanbe, the capital of today’s Tajikistan.
Words of Wisdom
- “The traveller must be aware of his every breath – was it taken in awareness of the presence of Allah or in heedlessness?”
- “Whenever the traveller notices in himself a state of constriction, apathy, doubt or anxiety he should immediately examine his state and his acts. He should take his nafs to account by noting whether he did anything contrary to the noble shari’a, or against the pleasure of Allah. If something, however minor it may be, did take place he should immediately try to correct it with great care by seeking Allah’s forgiveness”.
- “It is not possible to explain ‘divine love’ using the eloquent and lucid Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu or any language at all for that matter…This is why the friends of Allah speak about some of the mysteries of reality in a special language amongst themselves so that those who are incompetent do not understand… For instance, when it sees the rose, the nightingale sings a thousand verses for it with its sweet melody but when winter arrives its melody is cut off by the garden of thorns…Thus the melodies of reality of the nightingale only appear when the rose is present…When there is no rose the nightingale cannot sing”. (That is the Friends of Allah become as silent as a book full of wisdom in the presence of the ignorant).
- “One of the great Sufis said:
“O Allah! How great is the blessing you have bestowed on Your friends. Those who find them come to know You and those who know them find You. Those who devote themselves to them never become rebellious and rejected”.
- “Allah, Most High, increases the desire of those who desire Him”.
- “Many scholars remain distant from the circles of the Friends of Allah. This is why their worship is lacking”.
(That is, in order for the scholars to become people of piety it is a must that they attend spiritual talks).
- “The proof of arriving at the rank of sainthood is to follow completely the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), both outwardly and inwardly. Those who turned away from the happiness of following him were subject to eternal misery. The one who wishes to reach the rank of sainthood has no other choice than to willingly follow the Messenger of Allah”.
- “The prophets and the friends of Allah would bring life to their nights by staying awake. You too remain awake and bring love to this path so that this state of yours can be a means for bringing Allah’s mercy upon you”.
- “There are two paths. Some practice abstinence and struggle. They desire the result of this and they fulfil their aim. Whereas some are people of ihsan and do not see anything other than the grace and favour of Allah. They know that their obedience and struggle are by His grace and favour. They do not count their deeds and continue in their obedience only for God’s sake. Those who hold on to this idea and who also persevere in their deeds have reached their aim more quickly”.
- “Worship is when the heart is occupied with marifah, knowledge of Allah, and the spirit is busy with mushahada (realisation that it is continually under the watch of the divine camera), the nafs is busy with serving others (looking upon other creatures through the ‘eyes’ of Allah and thereby attending to their needs), and the tongue is busy with dhikr, (that is when remembrance of Allah reaches the heart and is transformed into deeds)”.
(In short, worship is when the human being is together with Allah, Most High, at every instant, both outwardly and inwardly).
. Yaqub Charkhi, Tafsirr, Suleymaniye Library., Nafiz Pasha, no: 59, vr. 172b-173a.. Charkhi, Risale-i Abdaliyya [in Ney-Name], p. 136.. Mir Abduawwal, Mesmu’at, p. 133; Rashahat, p. 145-146.. Charkhi, Tafsir-i Yaqub Charkhi, p. 98.. Bukhari, Adab, 41; Muslim, Birr, 48.. Bukhari, Dawat, 68.. Rashahat, p. 141.. See Charkhi, Risalei Unsiyya, p. [in Ney-Name], p. 92-95; Salahaddin ibn Mubaraq al Bukhari, Anisu al Talibin, p. 180-183; Jami, Nafahat, p. 549; Rashahat, p. 139-146.. Anisu al Talibin, p. 184.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 14.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 17.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 78a.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 143b; Samarkandi, Silsila al Arifin, vr. 40b.. Rashahat, p. 145.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 94.. Ahmad Jahid Haksever, Yaqub Charkhi, İstanbul 2009, p. 162.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 127a-b.. The works of Yaqub Charkhi: Tafsir-i Yaqub Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya, Risale-i Abdaliyya, Risale-i Naiyya, Sharh-i Asma al Husna, Risale der Ilm-i Faraiz, Misbah Muktebis min al-Mesabih, Hadith Arbain, Havraiyya, Sharh-i Nisabu al Sibyan li al-Farahi.. Muhammad Nazir Rancha, “Du Eser-i Gayr-i Chapi-yi Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi”, p. 40-41.. Mawlana Shaykh, Manaqib-i Khwaja Ubaydullah Ahrâr, vr. 69b; Jami, Nafahat, s. 550; Rashahat, p. 146.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 53b.. See Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 33.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 9b-10a, 12b, 14b, 46b, 50b, 61b.. See Charkhi, Sharh-i Asma ul Husna, p. 16-33.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 96.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 100.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 34.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 143b-144a.. Nafisi, Tarih-i Nazm u Nesr, II, 778-779.. Rashahat, p. 74.. Anisu al Talibin, p.185..See Charkhi, Ney-Name, p.. 29-30.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 31.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 41.. Charkhi, Ney-Name, p. 69.. See Al’i Imran 3:31-32.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 91.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 110.. Charkhi, Risale-i Unsiyya [in Ney-Name], p. 117.. Charkhi, Tafsir, vr. 5a.
Source: Osman Nuri Topbaş,The Golden Chain of Transmission Masters of the Naqshinandi Way, Erkam Publications