What are the sources of the religion of islam? What are the four sources of islam? How many sources of islam are there?
All knowledge and rulings pertaining to the religion of Islam, regarding this world and the hereafter, are obtained from four sources. These are the Book, the Sunnah, the Ijmāʿ (consensus), and Qiyās (analogy), respectively. These are also called “adilla al-arbaʿa” meaning four proofs or “adilla al-sharʿiyya” meaning the proofs of the Shari’ah. Moreover, these four sources are also called “primary proofs”. Apart from these, there are some other sources called “secondary proofs”: Maṣlaḥa (benefit of the society), istiḥsān (judicial preference), custom, shari’ahs of earlier religions, the legal views of the Companions, and istiṣḥāb (assumption of continuity). We will briefly examine these sources below. In this way, basic information will be attained on the sources on which the provisions of belief, worship, and other current important issues are based.
A-) PRIMARY SOURCES
1) The Book (al-Kitāb)
The book is the Holy Qur’an, which Allah revealed to His Messenger Muhammad in Arabic, written in the many muṣḥaf and transmitted to us through tawātur, starting with the chapter of al-Fatiha and ending with the chapter of al-Nas. According to the preferred view, it is an infinitive form of the verb “qara’a” and its root meaning is “to read, to collect, to gather together.” The Qur’an is not only a book of belief, worship, and morality, but also a book that organizes both belief and worship, and social and economic relations between people as general principles.
The following is stated in the Qur’anic verses, “We have sent down to you the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and a glad tiding unto all who have surrendered themselves to Allah.”, and “No single thing have We neglected in the Book.”
In 610 CE during the night of Qadr in the month of Ramadan, the Holy Quran commenced to be revealed by Jibril (a.s) to the Prophet Muhammad (saw) in the cave of Hira, where he used to go for contemplation and worship, and the revelation was completed in 22 years, 2 months and 22 days.
The first revealed verses were, “Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of your Lord and Cherisher, Who created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood. Proclaim! And your Lord is Most Bountiful, He Who taught (the use of) the pen, Taught man that which he knew not.” The last verse was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, on the ninth day of Dhu’l-Hijja. This verse is as follows, “…This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…” According to Abdullah Ibn Abbas (r.anhuma), the following verse was revealed later: “And fear the Day when ye shall be brought back to Allah. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.”
The verses that were revealed during the thirteen-year-long Meccan period contain mostly information about the hereafter. After people got used to Islam, verses about ḥalāl and ḥarām were sent down. Most of the verses that were revealed were based on either a question or an incident. This is called “asbāb al-nuzūl (reasons for revelation)”. As the Qur’an was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saw) dictated the revealed verses to the scribes of the revelation and told them which verse should be written wherein the Qur’an. There is a consensus that the order of the verses is based on revelation and there is a strong opinion that the order of the chapters is also based on revelation.
Sunnah means the sayings, actions, and tacit approvals of the Prophet (saw). An example of a verbal Sunnah is, “If a person sleeps or forgets to pray, let him perform it when he remembers.”, and an example of an actual Sunnah in practice is, “Perform the prayer as I do it.” As for the Sunnah based on tacit approval of the Prophet (saw), that means the Prophet’s acknowledgment and acceptance of something that he saw or heard. For instance, once a Companion prayed with tayammum for he could not find water during a journey, and he did not re-perform the prayer even though he found water after the prayer. The Prophet (saw) tacitly approved of his action by not saying anything or plainly disapproving of it.
In Islamic law, there is a consensus that the Sunnah is the second source after the Qur’an. The fact that the Sunnah is proof in religious matters is confirmed by various verses. Some of them are:
“So, take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.” “But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.” “He who obeys the Prophet obeys Allah.”
The Sunnah consists of conveying the mission of the Prophet (saw), which he received from his Lord. The Holy Qur’an states that the Prophet spoke from revelation. “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”
Sunnah has four functions in terms of the Qur’an. a) Explains the ambiguous and concise verses. b) It specifies the general provisions of the Qur’an. c) Informs about the abrogating (nāsikh) and abrogated (mansūkh) verses. d) It establishes new provisions that are not found in the Qur’an. For example; The way how the ritual prayer and zakāt are implemented is determined by the Sunnah, and the prohibition of eating the meat of domestic donkeys and birds of prey was also introduced by the Sunnah.
According to the number of the narrators of hadith, it is divided into three types, mutawātir, mashhūr, and aḥad. The aḥad hadith is also divided into the sub-sections of ṣaḥiḥ, ḥasan, and ḍa’if.
Mutawatir hadith refers to the hadiths transmitted by a group of narrators that cannot be united on the issue of lying. For instance, more than a hundred Companions reported the hadith, “Whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then (surely) let him occupy his seat in Hellfire” and twelve Companions reported the following hadith, “Woe to the heels that left dry in ablution!” Among the practical Sunnahs, there are many categorized as mutawatir. Like how to perform the ablution, the ritual prayer, and the pilgrimage. The validity of a mutawatir hadith is certain and it is obligatory to act in accordance with it. The mutawatir hadith can assist to specify the general verses of the Qur’an, and limit the absolute ones.
The mashhūr Sunnahs are the ones that were narrated by a few people from the Messenger of Allah (saw) and then later were transmitted at the level of tawātur during the second and third centuries of Hijrah. For example, the hadith “Actions are by intentions.” was first narrated only by Umar (ra), and then it was narrated by a group that reached the level of tawatur. Mashhūr Sunnah provides information close to certain knowledge. Just like mutawatir Sunnah, it can also specify the general verses and limit the absolute ones. As a matter of fact, the general meaning of the word “children” mentioned in the verse “Allah (thus) directs you as regards your children’s (inheritance)…” is limited by the mashhur hadith “The person who kills the inheritor cannot inherit it.” In the same inheritance verse, “bequeath” is mentioned in an absolute form without any limitations. When Ṣaʿd ibn Waqqas thought that his inheritance was too much for his daughter, who was his sole heir, and when he wanted to leave most of his inheritance to someone else through a legacy, the Messenger of Allah said to him: “One-third (is all right), yet it is still too much for you had better leave your inheritors wealthy rather than leaving them poor and begging from others.” This hadith is also at the level of a mashhur hadith and, thus limits any bequeath to one-third of the wealth.
The aḥad hadiths are ones that were narrated by one or two or more Companions and did not reach the level of mashhūr hadith. Most of the Sunnah was transmitted in this way.
Abu Ḥanīfa stipulates that in order for aḥad hadith to be a piece of evidence for legal rulings, the narrator must be reliable and just, as well as someone who knows Islamic law and acts on the hadith that he narrated. Imam Malik, on the other hand, accepts such a hadith as evidence if it is compatible with the deeds of the people of Medina. The aḥad Sunnah does not express “knowledge”, it expresses “doubt”. That is because such hadiths cannot be relied upon in matters of faith. However, aḥad hadiths that meet the above conditions are followed in matters of action.
3) Ijmāʿ (Consensus)
Ijmāʿ literally means persevering in a task and agreeing on something. As a term in Islamic jurisprudence, it refers to the consensus of the mujtahids from the ummah of Muhammad (saw) on a legal ruling in any period after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). According to this definition, the following conditions must exist in the ijmāʿ:
- a) The consensus of non-mujtahids is not considered as religious proof. A mujtahid is a person who has the knowledge and ability to deduce religious ruling from sources.
- b) The consensus of the mujtahids is sought when the consensus first happens about the ruling of a religious issue. The ijmāʿ is not invalidated by opinions changing later.
- c) A consensus on matters that do not have a religious aspect is not considered a consensus from a legal perspective.
The fact that ijmāʿ is a source of evidence is based on the evidence from the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The following is stated in the Qur’an, “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge!” There are also sayings of the Prophet (saw) showing that ijmāʿ is a proof. The following are some of them: “What Muslims consider beautiful is also beautiful in the sight of Allah.” and “My ummah will not unite on an error.”
The Ijmāʿ is divided into three types as clear ijmāʿ, silent ijmāʿ, and finally a consensus (ijmāʿ) on a certain part of an issue. Clear ijmāʿ is one in which every mujtahid of a century has openly expressed his agreed opinion on the subject of ijmāʿ. Silent ijmāʿ means that in any century, a scholar who has the power to make ijtihād reaches a certain view, and other mujtahid or mujtahids who hear about this view do not express an opinion in the form of acceptance or rejection, therefore a “consensus by silence (sukut)” on that issue is attained. As for the ijmāʿ that offers consensus on a part of the issue, an example of this is that some Companions said that the grandfather (from the father’s side) will prevent the brothers of the deceased from taking shares from an inheritance when he inherits, and some Companions instead said that the grandfather will inherit no less than one-third. Accordingly, in both cases, there is a consensus that the grandfather will be an heir, although the amount varies.
4) Qiyās (Analogy)
Qiyās means to compare or to measure one thing with another. As a legal term, it means comparing a new issue about which there is no provision in the Qur’anic verses or hadiths with an existing issue that has a ruling about it in the Qur’anic verses or hadiths due to the common features between the new issue and the existing one. This is then followed by offering the ruling of the existing issue to the new one.
Let us take wine as an example. Wine is prohibited in the Qur’an. However, in later periods, drinks with different names such as raki, vodka, champagne, whiskey, and beer emerged. These names are not mentioned in the Qur’an. Upon reflecting on the source, it is clear that wine is prohibited because it causes intoxication, this point is also stated in various hadiths. When it becomes clear that these new types of alcoholic beverages also intoxicate the drinker, the judgment of wine includes other alcoholic beverages by analogy due to the common feature of intoxication (iskār).
The fact is that qiyās is a proof based on Qur’anic verses, hadiths, and practices of the Companions. In one Qur’anic verse, after the exile of the Jews of Nadir, who lived near Medina and cooperated with the Quraysh against the Muslims after the Battle of Uhud, the following is stated: “O people of intelligence, take a lesson.”
A man from Has’am came to the Prophet (saw) and asked if his father was old and not in a position to perform the Hajj, although it was obligatory for him, whether he could perform the Hajj in place of his father. The Prophet (saw) replied by asking the following question, “If your father had a debt, if you had paid it, wouldn’t your father have been freed from debt?” When the man said “yes”, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Then you can perform Hajj in place of your father.” In a narration from Ibn Abbas, this question was asked about the deceased father and the Prophet said, “Paying a debt that is owed to Allah is a priority.”
Moreover, some Companions, while giving allegiance to Abu Bakr, took into account that the Prophet (saw) had chosen him as the imam for the prayer and made a comparison between the caliphate and the imamate of the prayer.
Qiyās consists of four essential pillars: a) ʿAsl: the nass (Qur’anic verse, hadith) about which there is a decree. b) Farʿ: The issue for which there is no provision and which is to be resolved by comparison. c) Ḥukm (Ruling): The provision that is to be transferred to the new issue by way of comparison. d) ʿIllah (Effective cause): It is the common cause found in both ‘asl and far’. In the example of liquor; The verse that prohibits wine is “ʿasl”, the new type of drink that will be subject to the ruling of wine is “far’”, the prohibition of wine is “ḥukm (ruling)”, and the common feature “iskār (being intoxicating)” is ʿillah (effective cause)”. Effective cause and wisdom (ḥikmah) are different from each other. Wisdom is a quality that is in accordance with the ruling, and it is a feature that is not limited and can be found in more than one. According to the vast majority of jurists, rulings are based not on wisdom, but on the effective cause.
B-) SECONDARY SOURCES
In addition to the four main sources on which Islamic rulings are based, there are secondary sources based on the above-mentioned primary sources at the origin. Such as istiḥsān, maṣlaḥa, custom, the shari’ahs of the previous religions, the legal views of the Companions, and iṣtiṣḥāb. We will briefly explain these below.
Istiḥsān literally means to find something beautiful and to consider it beautiful. As a term of the methodology of Islamic jurisprudence, it is defined as follows: Istiḥsān is based on a piece of evidence such as the nass (Qur’anic verse-hadith), ijmāʿ, necessity, hidden analogy, custom, or maṣlaḥa, which requires the mujtahid to abandon his judgment, which he would give on similar issues under normal circumstances, and instead offer another judgment.
Sometimes a legal issue falls within the scope of one of the general nass or a general rule adopted and settled in Islamic law or in some schools of Islamic law. However, in this matter, there is another special evidence, such as another nass, consensus, necessity, custom, and maṣlaḥa, which requires giving judgment to the contrary of that general nass or general rule. In such a situation, the mujtahid’s abandoning the judgment applied to similar cases and making judgments based on special evidence is called istiḥsān. Therefore, there is always another evidence of a special nature behind istiḥsān. This special evidence can be nass, ijmāʿ, necessity, hidden analogy, custom, or maṣlaḥa.
- a) Istiḥsān based on textual sources (nass – the Qur’an or hadith): Upon a question of Hakim ibn Hizam, the Prophet (saw) ordered: “Do not sell what you do not have.” This is a general nass. After the emigration to Medina, the Messenger of Allah (saw) saw that the people of Medina had made a salam (money in advance, goods deferred) contract for their fruits for one or two years, and he said: “He who makes an advance payment should not make advance payment except for a specified measure and weight (and for a specified period).” Although the salam contract has the quality of selling before owning the property, it is permissible in contradiction with an analogy based on this special hadith.
- b) Istiḥsān based on ijmāʿ: An example of this is the iṣtiṣnāʿ The commodity ordered to be constructed by a craftsman for a certain amount of money is a commodity that was not available at the time of the contract. However, since people practiced this type of contract widely, it was deemed permissible by the consensus of Muslim jurists.
- c) Istiḥsān based on necessity: For the sake of cleaning, a contaminated well requires the removal of all the water, yet the well is considered clean by removing some water due to necessity.
- d) Istiḥsān based on analogy (qiyās): For example, when the remnants of birds of prey are compared to predatory animals such as lions and tigers, they should be considered unclean. However, since their beaks are bone and clean, their residues are considered clean by comparing them to humans.
- e) Istiḥsān based on custom: In order to ensure the continuity of the religious foundation, the endowed thing must be immovable. However, Imam Muhammad made the judgment that movables, which in time customarily became such things as endowed books and the like, can be the subject of a religious foundation contrary to analogy.
- f) Istiḥsān based on maṣlaḥa: Prophet (saw) said, “Zakāt is not ḥalāl for Muhammad and his family.” Abu Ḥanīfa and Malik, in their own time, ruled that zakāt could be given to the sons of Hashim, who were from the Prophet Muhammad’s family. This is because the conditions had changed since the rights that used to be given to them by the state were no longer granted.
2) Maṣlaḥa (Public Benefit)
The legitimate public benefits in Islam are aimed at protecting these five things: Religion, property, life, intellect, and lineage. Even though there are some benefits to surrendering to the enemy without a fight, Islam did not consider these benefits valid and instead ordered Muslims at the time of battle to fight with the enemy. The public benefits, other than ones whose validity is determined by Qur’anic verses or hadiths, where the judgment attached to them and the judgment built upon them provide a benefit to people or removes harm from them, but for which there is no certain evidence regarding its validity or invalidity are called “maṣāliḥ al-mursala” (or public benefits left for ijtihād)”. The Maliki school is the one that used this evidence the most.
During the period of the four caliphs, many ijtihāds were made based on the maṣāliḥ al-mursala. For instance: the compilation of the Qur’an during the caliphate of Abu Bakr and its reproduction in the period of Uthman; caliph Uthman allowed the commencement of reciting the external call to prayer on Friday due to the increase in the population; when Abu Bakr realized that he was close to death, he nominated Umar as a caliph; Umar’s leaving the conquered Syrian and Iraqi lands with their former owners and subjecting them to the tribute tax, and similar practices are all examples of ijtihād based on maṣlaḥa.
3) Custom (ʿUrf)
The acts that most of the people adopt and make a habit of, or the words that they make customary to be used in a special sense that does not mean anything else when heard, are called “customs”. The hadith “What Muslims consider beautiful is also beautiful in the sight of Allah.” shows that custom is a source for legal rulings. In Majalla, the articles “What is customarily known is as if it is a stipulated condition” (Art. 43), and “Determining by custom is like establishing something by nass” (Art. 45) indicate the importance of custom in human transactions.
Customs that contradict the Qur’an or the Sunnah are not valid and take the name “fāsid (invalid) custom”. For example, alcohol and usury can sometimes become a custom among people due to it spreading widely, but this is not considered a valid custom. Accordingly, the customs formed in an Islamic society are divided into two types as, a) Valid (ṣaḥiḥ) custom For example, while the iṣtiṣnāʿ contract, which means ordering goods for the craftsman, should not be permissible because it is the sale of something that has not yet been produced, it was deemed permissible by the majority of jurists due to common customs. b) Invalid (fāsid) custom. It is a type of custom that is not considered valid because it contradicts a piece of definite scriptural evidence. For example; even if alcohol and usury were to spread across the whole of Muslim society, it could not gain legitimacy and would continue to be an invalid custom.
Changes in people’s customs can sometimes lead to a change in ruling. For example; Ḥanafi jurists used to support the view at first that it is not permissible to receive a fee for teaching the Qur’an. This is because teaching the Qur’an is an obedient act of worship that earns spiritual rewards and should be carried out free of charge. This ruling was in accordance with the conditions of the earlier periods, for at that time, appropriations were allocated from the State budget to the Qur’an teachers. But then the conditions changed and the allowances were cut off. The later Ḥanafi jurists, taking into account the change between their era and the conditions in the era of the previous imams, issued a fatwā that payment could be done for both teaching the Qur’an and some other acts of worship, such as being an imam and muezzin.
4) Shariʿah of the previous religions (Sharʿu man Qablana)
What is meant by Shariʿah of the previous religions is the decrees that Allah sent for the communities before Muhammad (saw) and communicated to them through His prophets such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Are these provisions also valid and binding for the followers of the Prophet Muhammad?
Shari’ah of the previous religions are divided into two types in terms of Muslim society:
- a) The provisions of the Bible, Torah, and Psalms that are not included in the Qur’an or the Sunnah of the Prophet. There is a consensus among Muslim scholars that these are not binding on Muslims.
- b) The provisions mentioned in the Qur’an or the sayings of the Prophet. It is possible to classify them into three groups:
- Provisions for which there is evidence that they are abolished in regards to the Muslims. There is a consensus that these are not binding on Muslims. An example of this is the prohibition on the Jews to not eat animals with undivided hoofs and the fat of the cattle and sheep as a punishment for their excessive behaviors and transgressions.
However, some provisions among them are made ḥalāl for Muslims. An example of this is that the booty has been made ḥalāl for the Muslim community and not for the previous ummahs.
- Rulings, for which there is evidence, that they are valid for Muslims as well. These are also binding on Muslims. For instance, fasting is made obligatory in Islam as it was obligatory in previous religions and sacrifice has also been made compulsory for the Muslim society as it was a decree for Abraham.
- Rulings that are not clearly stated in the Qur’an or in the hadiths, whether they should be accepted or rejected, and there is no evidence to be found that they were abolished in regards to Muslims. As an example, we can offer the following Qur’anic verse: “We ordained therein (in Torah) for them: “Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.” But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers.”
According to the majority of Muslim jurists, such Qur’anic verses are also valid for Muslims and constitute independent evidence. If there is no evidence in the Qur’anic verses and hadiths that a certain ruling mentioned in the textual sources is limited to a certain nation and a certain time, or that it was abrogated, it remains applicable to Muslims. As a matter of fact, Muhammad (saw) said: “Whoever falls asleep during prayer time or forgets it and passes the time, let him perform it when he remembers.” then he continued by reciting the following Qur’anic verse “…and establish regular prayer for celebrating My praise.” In fact, this last Qur’anic verse is addressing Moses.
Based on the above-mentioned verse related to reprisal, Ḥanafis said that a Muslim who kills a non-Muslim will be killed as retaliation. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “There is retaliation for the soul”, underpinning that the ruling of retaliation is also applicable to this ummah.
5) Legal Views of the Companions
Everyone who lived during the time of the Prophet and saw him and believed in him is called a “ṣaḥābī (companion)”. Its plurals can be “ṣaḥāba” and “aṣḥāb”. Scholars of the methodology of Islamic jurisprudence are known to have said that a single meeting with the Prophet would last for such a long period of time that it could be labeled “friendship.”
According to the majority of Muslim jurists, the legal view of Companions constitutes evidence and becomes binding if it is related to a subject that cannot be comprehended by opinion and ijtihād. For the reason that it is a high probability that such a view is based on a knowledge heard from the Prophet (saw). An example of this type of legal view is for instance that the Ḥanafis based their ruling that the shortest period of menstruation for women is three days on a report from Ibn Masʿūd (ra), and the ruling that the longest gestation period is two years from Aisha (r.anha).
Abu Ḥanīfa explained the method that he followed while making his ijtihād: “I take what is in the Book of Allah and accept it. If I cannot find anything in it, I will follow the famous Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, known by reliable scholars. If I cannot find anything there, I get the opinion of anyone of my choice amongst his companions, I don’t leave their views altogether. However, when it comes to the followers of them such as Ibrahim an-Nahai, Shaʿbi, Hasan al-Basri, and Ata, I can also make ijtihād like them.”
6) Iṣtiṣḥāb (Presumption of Continuity)
The word iṣtiṣḥāb literally means to have a conversation or to continue a conversation. Iṣtiṣḥāb, as a term of the methodology of Islamic jurisprudence, means to rule about the continuity of the decree of a situation that existed in the past, unless there is evidence that it has changed. When a specific provision cannot be found in the sources of the Qur’an, Sunnah, ijmāʿ, or qiyās regarding an issue, the mujtahid can find a solution through “iṣtiṣḥāb”.
For example, if a person’s marriage to a woman has been established, it is ruled that the marriage bond between them continues until evidence is presented that the marriage has ended. According to Ḥanafis, after a person performs the minor ablution (wuḍūʾ), it is accepted that he is still in the state of wuḍūʾ unless it is known for sure that one of the situations that invalidate wuḍūʾ has happened. Moreover, the situation of a missing person, meaning that it is unknown whether he is alive or not (mafqūd), was analyzed according to the rule of iṣtiṣḥāb. In brief, the rights known to belong to the mafqūd are that the provisions applied to living people are also applied to him/her -unless there is evidence of death. For instance, his property will not be distributed among his heirs, and his wife cannot marry someone else. This is because when he disappeared, it was known for certain that he was alive. It is accepted legally that the qualification of “being alive” continues until there is evidence that he is dead. However, in order to alleviate the plights that the heirs, especially the spouse, will face in this regard, the court may issue a verdict of the death of the missing person. According to the Ḥanafis, for a person to go to court to get a legally dead verdict, it is necessary to wait until the mafqūd’s peers pass away or the mafqūd to reach the age of 90. Whereas, according to the Malikis, four years must pass to get a verdict of death for the mafqūd. While the time required to wait for those who disappeared during a war is one year from the return of the combatants and prisoners of war.
From these sources, schools related to Islamic law or creed were formed around the great mujtahids who issued judgments in accordance with their own methods. Below, we will give brief information about these schools, which are called madhhab.
 Al-Naḥl, 16: 89. Al-Anʿām, 6: 38. In this verse, the “book” is interpreted as “lawḥ al-mahfūẓ”. See al-Anʿām, 6: 59; al-Naml, 27: 75; Saba, 34: 3; Ya Sin, 36: 12 Al-‘Alaq, 96: 1-5. Al-Mā’ida, 5: 3. Al-Baqara, 2: 281. Abu Dawud, Salat 11; al-Darimī, Salat, 26 Al-Bukhari, Adhan, 18, Adab, 27. Al-Hashr, 59: 7. Al-Nisā, 4: 65. Al-Nisā, 4: 80. See Al-Mā’ida, 5: 67. Al-Najm, 53: 3-4. M. Abu Zahra, ibid, p. 113114. Al-Bukhari, ʿIlm, 38; Janā’iz, 33; Anbiya, 50, Adab, 109; Muslim, Zuhd, 72; Abu Dawud, ʿIlm, 4; al-Tirmidhi, Fitan, 70, ʿIlm, 8, 13; Tafsir, 1. Manāqib, 19; Ibn Maja, Muqaddimah, 4; al-Darimi, Muqaddimah, 25, 46; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, II, 47, 83, 125, 150, 159, 171, 202, 214. Al-Bukhari, ʿIlm, 3, 30, Wudu, 27, 29. The Prophet said this when he saw a group that did not wash the back of the heels while performing ablution. Al-Nisā, 4: 11. Abu Dawud, Diyāt, 18; al-Darimī, Farāiẓ, 41; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, I, 49. Al-Bukhari, Janā’iz, 37, Manāqib, 49, Marḍā, 16; Muslim, Wasiyya, 5; Ibn Maja, Wasayā, 5; Malik, Muwattā’, Wasiyya, 4. Al-Nisā, 4: 115. Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, I, 379. Ibn Maja, Fitan, 8. Abu Zahra, ibid, p. 179. Al-Hashr, 59: 2. See al-Nasā’ī, Manāsik, 11-14; al-Bukhari, Ḥajj, 1; Muslim, Ḥajj, 407; Zakiyyuddīn Shaʿbān, ʿUṣūl al-Fiqh, trans. İbrahim Kafi Dönmez, Ankara, 1990, p. 114. Al-Sarakhsī, ʿUṣūl, II, 131,132; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Iʿlam al-Muwaqqiʿin, Cairo, 1325-1326, I, 253. Abu Dawud, Buyu’,70. Al-Bukhari, Salam, 1; Muslim, Musaqat, 158. Muslim, Zakat, 168; See al-Zaylaī, Naṣb al-Rāya, II, 404. Al-Sarakhsī, ʿUṣūl, Cairo, 1372-1373, II, 201 ff., Mabsut, Cairo, 1324-1331, X, 145 ff.; Abu Zahra, ʿUṣūl al-Fiqh, 263 ff.; Zakiyyuddīn Shaʿbān, ibid, p. 159 ff. Al-Ghazali, Mustasfa, Egypt 1322, I, 294 ff.; al-Shafii, ‘Umm, Cairo, 1321-1325, VII, 88 ff.; Abu Zahra, ibid, p. 27 ff.; Shaʿbān, ibid, 149 ff. Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, I, 379. Al-Zaylaī, ibid, IV, 17 ff.; Ibn Abidīn, “Risalat al-‘Urf,” Majmūʿat al-Rasā’il, Istanbul 1325, II, 126; Abu Zahra, ibid, p. 274 ff. Zakiyyuddīn Shaʿbān, ibid, p. 179. Al-Anʿām, 6: 145-146. See al-Anʿām, 6: 145; Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-Qadīr, VIII, 81, 82; al-Maydanī, Lubāb, IV, 159, ff.; al-Zuhaylī, al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuh, Damascus 1405/1985, III, 506 ff. Al-Bukhari, Tayammum 1. Al-Baqara, 2: 183. Ibn Maja, Aḍāḥī, 3. Al-Mā’ida, 5: 45. See al-Nasāi, Mawaqit, 53; al-Darimi, Salat, 26. Ta Ha, 20: 14. Abu Zahra, ibid, p. 307, 308. Al-Bukhari, Diyāt, 6; Muslim, Qasama, 25, 26; See al-Baqara, 2: 178. Ibn al-Qayyim, Iʿlam, critically ed. M. M. Abdülhamid, Egypt, 1374/1955, I, 25; al-Makkī, Manāqib, I, 74-78. Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-Qadīr, IV, 440 ff.; Ibn al-Qayyim, Iʿlam, I, 125 ff.; Zakiyyuddīn Shaʿbān, ibid, p. 188 ff.
Source: Basic Islamic Principles (ʿilmi ḥāl) According to the Four Sunni Schools With Evidence From The Sources of Islamic Law, Prof. Hamdi Döndüren, Erkam Publications
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