What are the situations specific to women? What are the islamic rules on menstruation?
There are a number of special conditions arising from the physiological nature of women. These situations are not related to men. In order for women to be able to perform some acts of worship related to cleanliness and not to commit a prohibited act in their relations with their husbands, they need to learn of these special provisions of Islam regarding their distinctive situations. Three types of blood come from the genitals of an adult woman:
a) Hayd or menstrual blood that comes between certain ages and at certain periods.
b) Nifās (postpartum) blood, which comes for a certain period after birth. In addition to these two,
c) istihada blood is generally caused by a medical condition. These three situations are explained in detail below.
A) Menses (Hayd):
1) Definition and Proof
As a term in Islamic legal terminology, ḥayḍ refers to the blood that comes from the genitals of a healthy woman who has reached puberty at regular intervals. This physiological situation experienced from the age of puberty to menopause is also called menstruation, menses, period, or flow. With the cessation of menstrual blood, the cleansing period of the woman begins. The period until the next menstrual period is called the “cleaning period”. When fertilization occurs, the egg cell clings to the inner lining of the uterus and begins to develop, and the menstrual bleeding stops. Therefore, in principle, the pregnant woman does not experience a menstrual period.
Women need to pay attention to the duration of menstruation. This is because the validity of some worships that require cleanliness, and the determination of issues such as waiting period (‘iddah) and alimony after the end of a marriage are based on this information.
There are various texts in the Qur’an and sunnah about the special conditions of women. In the Qur’an, it is specified that menstruation is a condition that causes distress and discomfort to women, therefore, sexual intercourse with women should be avoided during that time, that divorced women need to wait for three periods of menstruation and cleansing, and that women who have ceased menstruation (menopause) or who have not menstruated yet need to wait three months when their marriage ends.
At the time of the emergence of Islam, the Arabs of the age of ignorance did not even stay with menstruating women and eat together. This was also the custom of the Jews and Magians. Christians, on the other hand, did not care about this aspect at all, they even had sexual intercourse during women’s menses.
According to the Torah, the menstruating woman is considered unclean for seven days after the cessation of blood and was subjected to certain obligations. At the end of this period, the woman takes a bath called “mikveh or mikvah” and only after that is she considered clean.
In Islam, some protective provisions and conveniences have been introduced regarding the menstrual days, which cause mental and physical distress to women. The following is stated in the Qur’an: “They will ask you about [woman’s] monthly courses. Say: ‘It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.’ Verily, Allah loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and He loves those who keep themselves pure.”
There are various sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) regarding this subject matter. For instance, the Prophet (saw) said, “Menstruation is a state that Allah ordained for the daughters of Adam (as).” Moreover, the Messenger of Allah replied to a companion who asked him whether to stay away from a menstruating woman with the following words, “Things other than sexual intercourse can be carried out as during normal times.” However, he considered it appropriate to keep the area between such a woman’s navel and the knees covered.
The unclean aspect of menstruating women is only her menstrual blood. Her saliva and sweat are not impure. Moreover, the food cooked by her can be eaten and any of her leftovers are considered clean. It was narrated from Aisha (r. anha) that she said on this subject, “When I was menstruating, the Messenger of Allah (saw) would lean on my lap and read the Qur’an.”, and “I would drink when I was menstruating, then I would hand it (the vessel) to the Prophet (saw) and he would put his mouth where mine had been, and drink, and I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating, then hand it over to the Prophet (saw) and he would put his mouth where mine had been.”
2) Durations in Menstruation
At the age of puberty, a person leaves childhood and enters the age of youth. The lower limit of puberty is 9 years for girls and 12 years for boys. The sign of puberty is seen in boys by emission of semen and in girls by menstruation or conception. Since there is no clear verse or hadith for the upper limit of menstruation, fiqh scholars have offered different ages based on the common experience of women. According to the majority of jurists, menstruation, which starts from the age of 9, stops between the ages of 50-55. In this matter, normally the rulings are based on the actual start and end of menstruation. Outside of these ages, blood coming from the genitals of a female is considered “justified blood due to chronic vaginal bleeding”. According to the majority of Muslim jurists, if the emission of semen or menstruation is delayed, both genders are considered to have entered the age of puberty by the end of the age of 15. According to Abu Ḥanīfa, the upper limit is 17 for girls and 18 for boys.
Factors affecting the start, end, and regularity of menstruation included severe diseases, chronic diseases, climate and environmental changes, fear and excitement, excessive physical activity, unbalanced weight-loss diets, excessive desire to conceive, and even fear of becoming pregnant.
According to the Ḥanafis and the Ḥanbalis, pregnant women do not menstruate. However, according to the Malikis and Imam Shafiʿi’s final view, a pregnant woman can sometimes menstruate. They based their view on some reports stating that menstruation is a woman’s nature, as well as the absolute meaning of the verse that speaks of menstruation.
The longest and shortest period: According to the Ḥanafis, the shortest period of menstruation is three days and three nights. Less than that counts as chronic vaginal bleeding. The middle is 5 days and the longest period is 10 days and 10 nights. Bleeding that lasts ten days is considered a justification. Bleeding between the shortest and the longest period is considered “menstrual blood”. The evidence they rely on is the following hadith: “The shortest period of menstruation for a single or widowed woman is 3 days, and the longest is 10 days.” According to the Shafiʿis, the shortest period is one day or one night, and although the longest period is 15 days, most women’s periods are six or seven days. Whereas the Malikis do not set a limit for the minimum period, and they hold the view that the longest period is 15 days for a woman who has just started menstruating.
Bleeding does not need to continue uninterrupted during menstruation, it can be interrupted from time to time. For example, if a woman has bleeding for 4 days, then it stops for 2 days but then continues for 2 more days after that, in that case, she is still considered to have menstruated throughout all these 8 days.
The state of cleanliness between the two periods is called “ṭuhr”. The duration of cleanliness cannot be less than 15 days but it could be more than that. In fact, it can go on for months or years. In this way, a woman whose state of cleanliness is prolonged is called “mumtad al-ṭuhr”.
According to the Malikis and the Ḥanbalis, the days when the blood is cut off during menstruation are called “cleansing days (yawm al-naka),”. During this time the menstruating woman is considered ritually clean and is required to carry out her religious tasks just like other ritually clean women.
Some women have regular menstrual days. For example, they menstruate 5 or 6 days a month. For a young girl who is menstruating for the first time, the duration of her menses becomes clear with this number. For example, if such a young girl experiences bleeding for the first time for six days and cleaning for twenty-four days after that, her period will become definite in this way. Even if this young girl starts to experience chronic bleeding due to illness, her period is calculated as 6 days and cleaning days as 24 days per month.
For some women, menstrual days may be irregular, such as 5 days in one month and 6 days in another month. In such cases, it is necessary to act with prudence. For example, such a woman takes a bath on the sixth day, performs her prayers, and fasts if it is the month of Ramadan since the bleeding on this sixth day might be due to chronic bleeding. But she does not have sexual intercourse with her husband until this sixth day ends. On the other hand, if she is divorced, her waiting period (‘iddah) is not considered to be over because the bleeding on the sixth day might also be menstrual blood.
In order for a woman’s usual menstrual period to be considered changed, it is sufficient that it occurs at least twice in different duration. For example, the regular menstruation is for 5 days every month, but if this period increases to 6 days later, it is subject to this new period.
Bleeding that exceeds the regular menstrual period but does not exceed 10 days is considered menstrual bleeding. In this case, the regular time period becomes 10 days. For example, if a woman who has a menstrual period for 7 days every month sees bleeding for 10 days afterward, the period of menstruation will increase to 10 days. However, if the bleeding period exceeds 10 days after the regular menstrual period, attention is paid to the regular period and the excess is considered chronic bleeding. For example, if a woman whose menstruation lasted for 7 days regularly starts to bleed for 11 or 12 days every month, then the regular 7 days are considered menstrual bleeding, and the remaining 4 or 5 days are considered chronic bleeding.
Bleeding that begins before the regular period and does not exceed 10 days in total is also considered menstrual blood. If it exceeds 10 days, the regular period is menstrual, and the previous excess is considered chronic bleeding. For example, if a woman who has menstruation for 5 days from the beginning of each month begins to bleed for 2 or 3 more days before the regular period, the sum of these 7 or 8 days is considered the period of menstruation. If the total exceeds 10 days, the regular period of 7 days is considered menstrual, and the extra days are considered chronic bleeding.
Cessation of bleeding during menstruation:
Sometimes bleeding stops while menstruation continues, but then the blood may again be observed. In such a case, according to the Ḥanafis and the Shafiʿis, a woman is considered to be menstruating during a time when blood is not seen during menstruation. For example, if a woman bleeds one day, if the blood is cut off on the second day, or if she bleeds again on the third or fourth day, the woman is still considered to have her menstruation period during this entire period. Accordingly, any cleansing between two bleedings is not accepted as a duration that divides the period of menstruation. On the contrary, a woman is considered to have her menses during this whole period, which does not exceed ten days, provided that blood is seen at the beginning and the end.
Calculating the period of menstruation of a woman who constantly sees chronic bleeding:
If the bleeding of a young girl who started menstruation for the first time continues without being fixed, ten days of each month are considered “menstruation” and twenty days are regarded as “clean” days. She must act with the awareness that she is observing only chronic bleeding during her clean days.
If a woman who has regular menstruation starts to bleed continuously due to illness, she is considered to be menstruating on the days corresponding to her regular menstrual period and clean on other days. Again, if a woman experiences 10 days of menstruation every month and has regular clean days for 20 days or less than 6 months, but then starts bleeding continuously, the first 10 days of each month will be considered menstruation, and the other 20 days or a time period of fewer than 6 months will be considered clean days. However, if the cleaning time period exceeds 6 months, the clean time period is accepted as one hour less than 6 months. This is because 6 months are considered the minimum limit of the pregnancy time period.
A woman who has forgotten her menstrual days as a result of illness or carelessness is called a ‘mutahayyirah’. If the bleeding continues without interruption in the case of such a woman, she acts with her own conviction on the duration of her menstruation. If she does not have a resolute opinion, she should act with precaution. So if she is resolute that her period of menstruation is 5 days, she will comply with it. However, if she is not resolute then the precaution is applied. Regarding the waiting period for divorce, the waiting period is determined as 10 days and the clean period is one hour less than 6 months. According to another view, the clean period is considered to be 2 months.
3) Menstruation in Terms of Today’s Medical Science
In today’s world, where medicine has made significant progress, women’s menstrual period, its duration and the health measures to be taken should be based on medical science. As a matter of fact, based on observation and experience, it will be understood from the information given below how much the results of the Muslim jurists in their own historical period match with the data of medicine.
According to the data of medical science, the average age of first menstruation (menarche) is between 11-14. If the first menstruation occurs between the ages of 16-18, it is called “delayed menstruation”. Seeing menstruation before the age of 9 is also a sign of early maturation. Not seeing menstruation in a young girl at the age of 18 is considered an “absence of menstruation” and requires a doctor’s examination. The age of first menstruation is affected by familial, regional, and nutritional conditions. For example, the average age of first menstruation in Turkey is 12 years old.
However, not seeing menstruation before puberty, during pregnancy, during breastfeeding, and after menopause is normal and is called “physiological absence of menstruation”. All other menstrual absences (amenorrhea) are not normal, that is, it is considered a “pathological absence of menstruation”. The end of the menstrual period, that is, the complete cessation of menstrual bleeding and its absence, is called “menopause”. Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45-50. It can also be observed to be earlier or later than these ages. The gradual prolongation of the period between menstrual bleeding and the gradual decrease in the amount of bleeding is the most common symptoms of menopause. Sometimes the cessation of menstrual bleeding happens abruptly. Excessive and irregular bleeding can often be observed in the near-menopausal period.
Menstruation is usually repeated at 28-day intervals. Due to factors such as the age and mental status of women, it can normally be observed between 24-34 days. The duration of menstrual bleeding is usually 3-5 days, but its duration can be between 2-8 days. The bleeding duration may be variable even in the same woman.
This cessation of bleeding, which can occur during menstruation, is called cryptomenorrhea in medicine. There may be two reasons for this: Either the menstrual bleeding has been too small to be noticed, or a developmental defect, usually related to the reproductive organ, has prevented the menstrual blood from flowing out.
B) Postpartum Bleeding (Nifas):
Nifās means blood coming after birth. The blood that comes with the child at the time of birth or before the birth is bad blood or blood flowing due to a chronic problem. A woman performs ablution and performs her prayers during her pregnancy until the birth. If she is unable to perform ablution due to her illness, she performs tayammum and performs her prayers by gestures, but does not delay the prayer.
There is no limit for the shortest period of postnatal bleeding. It could even be one day because no verse or hadith determines this. In such a case, the duration of its actual occurrence is taken into account. According to the Ḥanafis and the Ḥanbalis, the longest period of postnatal bleeding is 40 days. The blood that will be observed after this is the blood of chronic bleeding. The evidence is the following hadith reported from Umm Salama (r. anha) who said, “The woman having bleeding after delivery (puerperal hemorrhage) would refrain (from prayer) for forty days or forty nights during the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw).” According to the Shafiʿis and the Malikis, the maximum period of postpartum bleeding is 60 days. However, this period usually lasts forty days.
In today’s medical science, the postpartum period is defined as follows: It is the six-week period that includes the woman’s return to her former state by getting away from the changes that happened to the uterus, birth canal, and all the changes brought about by pregnancy. The uterus, which grows with birth, gets smaller every day in the days after birth. The most important reason for this shrinkage is the shrinkage of the muscle cells in the uterus.
The woman may not see blood after giving birth. For instance, according to some narrations, a woman gave birth during the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and did not experience puerperal blood, so she was called “dhāt al-jufūf”.
Nifās occurs when a baby with limbs, such as hands and feet, is miscarried and it usually lasts for 10-15 days. However, the provisions of miscarriage are not applied to a miscarried baby whose limbs have not been formed yet. Bleeding with the miscarriage of such a baby lasts for three days. If the state of cleanliness has continued for at least 15 days before, this is considered menstrual blood. If that is not the case, it is considered blood caused by a chronic problem.
According to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, a woman who has given birth to a child is not considered to be in a postpartum period if there is no blood coming from her. Therefore, she does not need to perform ghusl. Wuḍū alone is sufficient. According to Abu Ḥanīfa, she should perform ghusl as a precaution.
Cessation of bleeding during the postpartum period does not cause an interruption in the postpartum period. The presence of bleeding at the beginning and the end is considered sequential bleeding. There is no difference between the duration of blood cessation less than or more than 15 days.
According to the Shafiʿis and the Malikis, if the period of clean days exceeds 15 days, then the “clean days” after that are considered “menstruation”. If the clean days continue for less than half a month, all of them are considered postpartum bleeding.
In twin births, the postpartum period begins with the birth of the first child. However, according to the Shafiʿis, this period begins with the birth of the second child. If it is the blood that comes after the birth of the first child, and if it is at the time of menstruation, it is considered menstrual blood, otherwise, it is considered chronic bleeding.
C) Provisions Related to Menstruation and Postpartum Bleeding:
1) Ghusl becomes obligatory: When menstruation and puerperium are over, the woman must perform the ghusl. This is obligatory for her to be able to perform acts of worship such as prayer, fasting, and circumambulation during the pilgrimage. In the Qur’an, it is stated that women who experience menstruation must be cleansed in order for their husbands to have sexual interaction with them. Moreover, the Prophet (saw) said to Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh (r. anha), who asked him about the provision of the chronic bleeding which did not stop for a long time, “No, because it is from a blood vessel and not the menses. So when the real menses begins give up your prayers and when it (the period) has finished wash the blood off your body (take a bath) and offer your prayers.”
2) A woman becomes an adolescent by menstruating: A young girl’s menstruation and a boy’s emission of semen is a signs of their puberty. Through this sign, they begin to be subject to religious commands and prohibitions such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and zakāt. It is stated in a hadith, “Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached the age of menstruation without a headscarf.”
3) Exemption from prayer: It is not permissible for a menstruating or puerperal woman to pray. Another version of the narration of the hadith of Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh, which we mentioned above, reported by al-Bukhari is as follows: “As long as your menstruation continues, leave the prayer, then perform ghusl and perform the prayer.” It is not necessary for them to make up late prayers that are not performed during this time period. Aisha (r. anha) said: “We had our menstruation at the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw). We were not ordered to make up the prayers we could not perform during this time, but we were ordered to make up the fasts we could not observe.”
4) Postponing the obligatory fast: A menstruating or postpartum woman does not fast during Ramadan and then makes up for it. The evidence for this is the hadith of Aisha that we just mentioned above.
5) Not circumambulating the Ka’ba: A menstruating woman can perform all the rituals of hajj or umrah except the circumambulating of the Ka’ba. The evidence is the following hadith of Aisha (r. anha), who participated in the farewell pilgrimage, “We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we reached Sarif, (a place six miles from Mecca) I got my menses. Allah’s Messenger (saw) came to me while I was weeping. He said “What is the matter with you? Have you got your menses?” I replied, “Yes.” He said, “This is a thing which Allah has ordained for the daughters of Adam. So do what all the pilgrims do with the exception of the Tawaf (Circumambulation) round the Ka’ba.” 
6) Not to touch the Qur’an and not to read the Qur’an: According to the three schools of Islamic law, except the Malikis, it is not permissible for a menstruating woman to read the Qur’an and touch it. The proof they argue comes from the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The following is stated in the verse, “That this is indeed a Qur’an Most Honorable, … Which none shall touch but those who are clean.” In a hadith narrated by Abdullah Ibn Umar, it is stated: “A junub and menstruating woman cannot read the Qur’an.” It is narrated from Ali that he said, “The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to go to the toilet, urinate, then go out, eat bread and meat with us, and read the Qur’an. It wouldn’t have prevented him. Nothing would separate him from the Qur’an except being in the state of janabah.”
Since it is permissible to engage in the books of tafsir, hadith, or fiqh for educational purposes, there is no harm in teaching the verses of the Qur’an, word for word, or reading the Qur’an with the intention of supplication and dhikr.
According to the sound view of the Malikis, there is no harm in reciting the Qur’an by heart or teaching it during menstruation or in the postpartum period. According to the Ḥanafis, in this case, verses of invocation can be read with the intention of supplication.
However, according to Imam Malik, although a junub woman cannot read the Qur’an, a woman in menstruation or puerperium is allowed to read it. This is because while the state of janabah can be cleansed immediately, the state of menstruation or postpartum period cannot be cleansed for a long time. The evidence they rely on is juristic preference (istiḥsān). This view is a facility for women who for example teach the Qur’an.
7) Not being allowed to enter the mosque: It is also not permissible for menstruating women and people in the state of janabah to enter the masjid since they cannot perform ritual prayers in such situations. Indeed it is stated in a hadith, “No menstruating woman and men who are in the state of janabah should enter the mosque.” However, it is possible and permissible for a person to enter the masjid due to a necessity or need, and not for the purpose of worship. According to the narration from Aisha (r. anha), she said: “One day the Messenger of Allah told me, “Get me the mat from the mosque.” When I told him I am menstruating, he said, “Your menstruation is not something in your control.”
8) Not having sexual relations: In the Qur’an, it has been stated that menstruating women should not be approached until they are cleansed. Here, what is meant by not approaching women is not having sexual relations with them. Moreover, Allah’s Messenger (saw) replied to a Companion who asked how much he could be with his menstruating wife: “You can benefit from her as usual provided that she is covered between her navel and kneecap.” According to the majority of jurists, the penalty of atonement is not required in case of sexual contact with a menstruating or puerperal woman, but repentance and asking forgiveness from Allah is necessary because it is prohibited. This ruling is about protecting the woman in distress.
9) The effect of menstruation and postpartum bleeding on divorce and the waiting period (‘iddah): It is not permissible to divorce a menstruating woman, but despite this, divorce is valid according to the majority of jurists. It is stated in a verse; “When you do divorce women, divorce them at their prescribed periods, and count (accurately), their prescribed periods…” What is meant here is to divorce women on their clean days. Moreover, it is reported that when Abdullah Ibn Umar divorced his wife on the days of menstruation, the Messenger of Allah informed him to return to his wife and that he could, if he still wanted, divorce her later on her clean days or while she was pregnant. However, no Qur’anic verse or hadith states that the postpartum period is an obstacle to divorce. Yet, it should be taken into account that the same effective cause is valid for this postpartum period by comparing it to menstruation. However, such a divorce is still valid and the woman is expected to complete her waiting period for divorce, which is a time period of three menses and three cleansings. Whereas, the waiting period of a woman who is divorced while pregnant ends with childbirth.
D) Chronic Bleeding (Istihada):
Blood coming from a vein inside the woman’s genitals, due to a disease or medical disorder, during periods other than menstruation or postpartum bleeding, is called “chronic bleeding (istiḥāḍa)”. One of the aims of the efforts of the jurists to determine the shortest and longest periods for menstruation or puerperium is to distinguish between menstruation and puerperium blood and istiḥāḍa blood. Therefore, for instance, according to the Ḥanafis, bleeding less than 3 days or more than 10 days in a woman, bleeding more than 40 days in the puerperium, and according to some jurists, bleeding that can be seen in a pregnant woman are always considered istiḥāḍa (chronic) bleeding.
Istiḥāḍa bleeding is a state of constant excuse (‘uẓr) that only invalidates wuḍū, similar to constant nosebleed, incontinence of urine, or constant blood flow from a wound. Differences of views regarding the issue of ‘uẓr have been mentioned above. According to the Ḥanafis, if such an excuse continues during a prayer time without interrupting even for the time it takes to perform ablution and pray, and if it repeats at least once during other prayer times, that person is deemed to have “a constant excuse”. For this reason, the provisions regarding the people with constant excuses are applied. In other words, it does not prevent worship such as fasting and prayer, which are prohibited due to menstruation or postpartum bleeding, circumambulation around the Ka’ba, reading the Qur’an, or touching the text of the Qur’an, entering the mosque, entering itikāf and having sexual intercourse. Unless there is a situation that harms the health of the woman, there is no problem with these acts. This is because the religion of Islam has provided such facilities to those who are in a state of constant excuse.
It is proven by the hadiths that the blood from chronic bleeding invalidates the wuḍū. It was narrated from Aisha (r. anha) that she said, “Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh said to Allah’s Messenger (saw), “O Allah’s Messenger (saw)! I do not become clean (from bleeding). Shall I give up my prayers?” Allah’s Messenger (saw) replied: “No, because it is from a blood vessel and not the menses. So when the real menses begins give up your prayers and when it (the period) has finished, wash the blood off your body (take a bath) and offer your prayers.” Furthermore, it is reported that the Prophet (saw) ordered Hamna bint Jahsh to fast and pray during her chronic bleeding (istiḥāḍa).
According to the Ḥanafis, the Shafiʿis, and the Ḥanbalis, a woman who suffers from bleeding outside of the period of menstruation or postpartum period should perform ablution for each prayer after cleaning the blood, use cotton and similar items, and take the necessary precautions for keeping clean. Unless there is another reason that invalidates the wuḍū, this ablution will not be invalidated until the next prayer time comes. The Prophet (saw) said to Hamna (r. anha), who complained about excessive blood flow, “I suggest that you should use cotton, for it absorbs the blood.” Again, regarding a woman experiencing prolonged bleeding, the Messenger of Allah said, “She leaves the prayer on menstruation days, then she takes a bath, then performs ablution for each prayer, performs her prayer and fasts.” This was prescribed because this type of cleaning for a woman is the way of cleaning during the state of constant excuse and necessity.
Chronic bleeding can also be seen in girls under the age of nine and in elderly women who have reached the age of menopause. For example, the blood that will come from a woman who has reached the age of seventy is the blood of istiḥāḍa. According to another view, if such a woman observes blood coming out of her previous menstrual cycle, her menstruation will return, but seeing a little wetness is not considered menstruation.
According to the Ḥanafis, the calculation of the menstrual period of the woman who experiences istiḥāḍa blood is done as follows (the same method can be applied to other schools by using their views about the minimum and maximum duration of menses):
1) If a young girl who has entered the age of puberty for the first time continues to experience istiḥāḍa bleeding along with her period, 10 days of each month are considered “menstrual bleeding” and 20 days of “cleanliness”. In this case, the postpartum period of the woman is 40 days.
2) If a woman who has regular menstruation observes istiḥāḍa bleeding, blood that continues beyond the period of menstruation is considered to be chronic bleeding.
3) If a woman who has forgotten her menstrual period (muḥayyira or mutaḥayyira) observes bleeding due to a chronic problem, she should act in accordance with the most prudent option.
 Komisyon, İlmihal, I, 211. Al-Baqara, 2: 222. Al-Baqara, 2: 228. Al-Ṭalaq, 65: 4. Elmalılı, Hak Dini Kur’an Dili, Azim ed., II, 99. See Leviticus, 15: 19- 24, 18: 19, 20: 18; II. Samuel, 11: 4; Ezekiel, 22: 10. See Leviticus, 15: 19. Al-Baqara, 2: 222. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 1, 7, Aḍāḥī, 3, 10; Muslim, Ḥajj, 119, 120; Abū Dawūd, Manāsik, 23. Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 16; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 18; Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 12. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 5, Ṭaḥāra, 175; al-Darimī, Ṭaḥāra, 108. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 2, 3; Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 15; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 173. Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 14. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 279 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, Marāq al-Falaḥ, Egypt, 1315, p. 23; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, Cairo, n.d. I, 363. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, I, 51. Al-Zaylaī, Naṣb al-Rāya, I, 191. Al-Kāsānī, I, 39; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, I, 11; Ibn Rushd (Averroes), ibid, I, 48 ff.; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, I, 308. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), ibid, I, 52; Al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 463; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 263 ff.; Bilmen, ibid, 95 ff. Bilmen, ibid, 97. Görsel Sağlık Ansiklopedisi, II, 314-316. Görsel Sağlık Ansiklopedisi, II, 314. Görsel Sağlık Ansiklopedisi, Görsel Yayınlar, Istanbul 1984, II, 316. Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 119. See Görsel Sağlık Ansiklopedisi, 3 ed., Ankara 1984, “Loğusalık Dönemi”, II, 354, 355. See Ibn al-Humām, ibid, I, 129; al-Kāsānī, ibid, I, 41-43; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 275 ff.; al-Maydanī, Lubāb, I, 352; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, 23; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 466, 467. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 275 ff.; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 446 ff.; Bilmen, ibid, p. 97 ff. See al-Baqara, 2: 222. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 19, 24, Wuḍū , 63; Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 62, 63; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 107; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 93, 95, 96. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 132; Abū Dawūd, Salat, 84; al-Tirmidhī, Salat, 160; Ahmad Ibn Ḥanbal, IV, 151. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 19, 24. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 20; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 104; al-Tirmidhī, Ṣawm, 67; al-Nasā’ī, Ḥayḍ, 17, Ṣiyām, 64. Al-Bukhari, Ḥayḍ, 1, 7, Ḥajj, 71; Aḍāḥī, 3, 10; Abū Dawūd, Manāsik, 23. Al-Wāqi’a, 56: 79. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 105; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 98. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 105, Hadith No: 593. Al-Zuhaylī, I, 470, 471. Ibn Ḥazm, al-Muḥalla, I, 78-80; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 380. Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 92; al-Darimī, Wuḍū , 116. Muslim, Ḥayḍ 11-13; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 172, Ḥayḍ, 18; Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 120. See Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 11- 13; Al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 172, Ḥayḍ, 18; Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 120. Al-Baqara, 2: 222. Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 16; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭaḥāra, 18; Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 12. Al-Ṭalaq, 65: 1. See Muslim, Ṭalaq, 1-5. See al-Baqara, 2: 228. Al-Ṭalaq, 65: 4. Ibn Abidīn, I, 111, Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, I, 339. Al-Bukhari, Wuḍū, 63, Ḥayḍ, 24; Muslim, Ḥayḍ, 62,63; Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 107; al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 93, 95, 96. Al-Shawkanī, ibid, I, 271. Abū Dawūd, Ṭaḥāra, 109; Al-Tirmidhī, Ṭaḥāra, 95; Ibn Maja, Ṭaḥāra, 115. Al-Shawkanī, ibid, I, 274; Al-Zaylaī, ibid, I, 202 ff. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 111 ff.; al-Fatawā al-Hindiyya, 2nd ed., Bûlak, 1310, I, 38 ff.; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, I, 478 ff.; Bilmen, ibid, p. 102. Ibn al-Humām, ibid, I, 122-124; al-Maydanī, ibid, I, 50; al-Kāsānī, ibid, I, 41 ff.; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, I, 277.
Source: Basic Islamic Principles (ilmiḥal) According to the Four Sunni Schools With Evidence From The Sources of Islamic Law, Prof. Hamdi Döndüren, Erkam Publications