What are the hadiths about Islamic law (fiqh) and independent reasoning (Ijtihād)? Examples of hadiths about Islamic law (fiqh) and independent reasoning (Ijtihād)…
‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As (ra) said that he heard Allah’s Messenger (saw) say, “Allah does not take away knowledge by taking it away from (the hearts of) the people, but takes it away by the death of learned religious men until none of the (learned religious men) remains. Then people will take as their leaders ignorant persons who when consulted will give their judgement without knowledge. So they will go astray and will lead the people astray.” (al-Bukhari, al-ʿIlm, 34)
According to Muʿadh (ra), (before) the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent him to Yemen they had the following discussion:
– “How will you judge (when a case comes to you)?
– I will judge in accordance with Allah’s Book.
– (What will you do) if you do not find any guidance in Allah’s Book?
– (I will act) in accordance with the sunna of the Messenger of Allah.
– And if there is nothing in the sunna of the Messenger of Allah?
– I will make a great effort to form an opinion and then judge accordingly.”
Thereupon the Messenger of Allah said, “Praise be to Allah Who made the messenger of the Messenger of Allah successful.” (al-Tirmidhi, al-Ahkam, 3; Abu Da’ud, al-Qadaʾ, (al-Aqdiyya), 11)
According to Ibn ‘Abbas (ra), the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “For whomever Allah wants good, he gives him profound understanding in the religion.” (al-Tirmidhi, al-ʾIlm, 1)
Zayd b. Thabit (ra) said that he heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say, “May Allah brighten a man who hears a tradition from us, learns it by heart and passes it on to others. Many a bearer of knowledge conveys it to one who is more versed than he is; and many a bearer of knowledge is not versed in it.” (Abu Da’ud, al-ʾ Ilm, 10; T2656, al-Tirmidhi, al-ʾIlm, 7)
ʿAmr b. al-ʿAs (ra) heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say, “When a judge gives a decision, having tried his best to decide correctly and is right, there are two rewards for him; and if he gives a judgement after having tried his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.” (Muslim, al-Aqdiyya, 15)
According to Wabisa b. Maʿbad al-Asadi (ra), the Messenger of Allah (saw) said to him: “Have you come to ask about pious goodness and sin?” I (Wabisa) said, “Yes.” He said, “Consult your heart. Righteousness is that about which the soul feels tranquil and the heart feels tranquil, and wrongdoing is that which wavers in the soul and moves to and from in the breast even though people again and again have given you their legal opinion [in its favor].” (al-Darimi, al-Buyūʿ, 2)
Source: Presidency Of Religious Affairs The Turkey, Islam Through Hadiths