What are the conditions of fasting? What are the conditions of fasting ramadan? What are the rules of fasting in islam?
A) Conditions for Fasting to be Obligatory Upon the Person
For a person to be considered responsible for fasting, he or she must be Muslim, sane and adolescent, as well as be healthy enough to perform this type of worship and not be on a journey. We will briefly describe them below:
1) Being a Muslim
Fasting is obligatory for a Muslim. Non-Muslims are not liable for the commands and prohibitions of Islam. After converting to Islam, they do not have to make up for the acts of worship of the previous years, such as prayers and fasting. According to the Ḥanafis, there is only one reason for punishment for non-Muslim in the Hereafter, and this is the punishment for their disbelief. Imams of the other schools add the penalty of not fulfilling the commands of Islam.
A person who converts to Islam in the month of Ramadan fasts the remaining days. Past sins are forgiven. Allah Almighty says, “Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them…”
2) Being Sane and Adolescent
Fasting is not obligatory for a child, a mentally ill person, an unconscious person, or a drunk person. Since they are not qualified to fast, they are not the addressee of the order. The Prophet said, “The pen has been lifted from three; for the sleeping person until he awakens, for the boy until he becomes a young man, and for the mentally insane until he regains sanity.”
According to the Ḥanafis, the Shafiʿis, and the Ḥanbalis, parents should order their boys and the girls who have reached the age of seven, are able to fast, and have the power to distinguish between good and bad to fast. Their fasting is valid as their prayer is, and the reward belongs to the parents. The purpose of this is to accustom children to fasting. However, since fasting is a difficult act of worship, the child must have the ability to observe it. According to the Malikis, fasting is different from prayer. The child becomes responsible for this act of worship only when he or she reaches the age of puberty.
If mental illness and fainting occur at short intervals, it does not prevent fasting from being obligatory and to be made up when it is missed. However, according to the Ḥanafis, a mental illness that continues throughout the month of Ramadan removes the obligation of fasting of that year, and no making up for the missed Ramadan is required. If it is part of Ramadan, the missed days must be made up later. According to the other three schools, if mental disability caused by an illness continues for one whole day, it removes the responsibility for that day. On the other hand, fainting does not remove the obligation of fasting and making it up when necessary because it is rare that the state of fainting lasts for a long time. Being intoxicated is like fainting.
According to the famous view of the Malikis, mental illness, in principle, requires making the missed fasts up. The evidence on which they based this is the hadith stating, “The pen has been lifted from the mentally insane until he regains sanity.”
3) Being able to Fast and Being a Resident
Fasting is not obligatory for the ill and the travelers. However, if they fast, their fast is valid. If they do not fast, they will make up for the days they could not fast. The following provisions regarding sickness and travel are expressed in the Qur’an, “(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; But whoever of you is ill, or on a journey, shall fast instead for the same number of other days; and in such cases, it is incumbent upon those who can afford it a ransom as a substitute of feeding a needy person. And whoever does more good than he is bound to do does good unto himself thereby; for to fast is to do good unto yourselves if you but knew it.”
Fasting is not obligatory for those who are not able to do it due to old age, and it is not obligatory for women who are in menstruation or postpartum bleeding, or for pregnant or lactating women who are in danger of harming themselves or their children. The elderly offer ransom instead of fasting, and the others make the missed days up. For the traveler to not fast, the travel distance must be more than a certain limit, that is, a distance that requires him to perform shortened prayers.
On the other hand, a person who converted to Islam in a land of disbelievers must have learned that fasting is obligatory for not knowing in such places is a valid excuse.
B) The Excuses That Make it Permissible not to Fast
The obligations imposed by Islam are limited by the abilities of the human being. For this reason, certain concessions and facilities are granted to the responsible believers in cases of difficulties and times of hardships. In accordance with this principle, in some cases, the right to postpone the obligatory fast or even not to fast at all is recognized.
The valid excuses that make it permissible not to fast in Ramadan or to break a fast that has already started are as follows:
1) Being on a Journey (Safar)
Anyone who goes to a place as far as at least three days, that is, eighteen hours, during Ramadan, has the option not to intend to fast before dawn. Thus, when he sets off that day, he will not be fasting. However, if a person goes on a journey during the day after starting the fast, this journey is not an excuse to break the fast for that first day. He must continue and complete his fast. However, if this person breaks his fast, only a make up fast is required, not atonement. This is because he broke his fast based on the excuse of being on a journey.
Allah Almighty says about the fasting of those who are sick and traveling in Ramadan, “But whoever of you is ill, or on a journey, shall fast instead for the same number of other days.”
It is more virtuous for the traveler to fast if he will not be harmed because, in the last part of the above verse, it is said, “for to fast is to do good unto yourselves if you but knew it.” If the traveler’s friends are fasting or the travel expenses are not shared, it is more virtuous for him to fast as well. However, if most of his friends do not fast or share the expenses, it is more appropriate not to fast.
According to the Shafiʿis and the Ḥanbalis, a traveler can also break the fast that he intended the night before. The evidence is the following hadith reported from Ibn Abbas (r.anhuma), “The Prophet set out for the conquest of Mecca in the month of Ramadan. He fasted until he reached the place called Qadīd. He and other people broke their fast there.”
2) Being ill
If a person fears that he will die or that his illness will get worse or prolonged or his mind will be harmed, he may not fast or break his fast. Later, when he gets well, he should make it up.
It is not permissible to break the fast if the illness is one of the diseases that will not harm the person when he fasts, as in itchy skin, toothache, finger pain, boils, etc. A Muslim specialist doctor should be consulted about whether fasting poses a danger to the health of the patient.
The concession provided to the patients regarding not to fast is based on the following verse, “But whoever of you is ill, or on a journey, shall fast instead for the same number of other days.”
A person who is healthy during the month of Ramadan, but who is known to get ill when he fasts, or who is known according to medical data, is also considered to be ill.
3) Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Pregnant or lactating women during Ramadan may not fast if they fear that harm will come to themselves or their children. Later they should make up their missed days. In the case of breastfeeding someone else’s child, there should not be anybody who could breastfeed the child, or even if there is another woman available, the child should be refusing to be breastfed by that woman.
The proof that it is permissible for pregnant and lactating women not to fast is to compare her to the ill and the traveler. Another proof is the following hadith of the Prophet, “Allah, the mighty and sublime, has waived fasting and half of the prayer for the traveler and for pregnant and breastfeeding women.”
4) Old Age
It is permissible by consensus for very old men and women, who are incapable of fasting in all seasons of the year, not to fast. It is not necessary for them to make up their fast, either. Instead, they must offer a monetary compensation (fidya) adequate to feed the poor for every day they could not fast. The following is stated in the Qur’an, “and in such cases, it is incumbent upon those who can afford it a ransom as a substitute of feeding a needy person.” Ibn Abbas (ra) said that this verse is about very old men and women who cannot fast. They need to feed a poor person in place of each day that they could not fast.
The ill with no hope of recovery are treated like the elderly. Because Allah Almighty says: “Allah has imposed no difficulties on you in religion.” However, those who do not have the strength to fast in Ramadan but are able to make it up later, do not pay the monetary compensation and make up for the fasts they could not observe in Ramadan. According to the Malikis, those who are too old to fast and those who are too ill to fast with no hope of recovery, do not have to pay monetary compensation for the fast they could not observe, but its payment is considered mustaḥab.
The monetary compensation for fasting can be given at the beginning or at the end of Ramadan. The fidya for thirty days can be given to various poor people as well as the whole amount can be given to one poor person. According to Abu Yusuf, one day’s fidya can also be distributed among a few poor people. It is also permissible to offer food (ibāḥa) equal to the amount of fidya instead of giving it to the poor. That is, it is sufficient for a poor person to have enough food to be satiated in the morning and evening to compensate for the fasting of each day.
If a person who gives the fidya for fasting due to old age or an incurable disease gets better and is able to fast later, payment of the fidya will be considered invalid. He has to fast and make up for those days.
5) Being in a Fight with the Enemy
A Muslim soldier who fights the enemy in Ramadan does not have to fast if he fears that he will become weak in the face of the enemy. Even if the battle does not actually take place, he will only need to make those days up later.
6) Breaking the Fast under Duress and Intimidation
A person who is threatened with harm to his life or a limb may break his fast. He then makes it up. However, if a person who is not a traveler or ill were to be killed because of not breaking the Ramadan fast under coercion, he would not be considered a sinner. Perhaps he will gain a great reward for showing his devotion to his religion. However, if the traveler and the ill do not break their fast and are killed under duress, it will be considered a sin because there is already a concession provided to them to break their fast. It would not be right for them not to benefit from this concessionary rule in the face of compulsion. If a fasting woman has sexual intercourse forcibly or while she is asleep, she will need to make up her fast later.
7) Severe Hunger and Thirst
If a fasting person fears that he or she will perish due to extreme hunger or thirst, that his physical and mental health will seriously be affected, or if such a thing is highly probable according to experiences or medical data, it is permissible for him or her to break the fast. It must be made up later. In fact, if the danger of death is certain, it becomes ḥarām to fast, because Allah, the Exalted says, “make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction”, and“Nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful!”
8) Being Invited to a Banquet
Giving a banquet or being invited to a banquet can only be considered an excuse for breaking a voluntary fast. A person who gives a banquet or is invited to a feast can break his voluntary fast, and he can make it up later. For if he continues to fast it is possible that he may offend a Muslim brother.
On the other hand, according to the soundest view, a banquet is an excuse for the guest or host until noon.
Fasting must continue after zawāl, but it can be broken only if there is disobedience against the parents because by the afternoon the ruling on completing the fast has gained strength.
The feast is not a valid excuse for neither farḍ nor wājib fasts.
9) Menstruation or Postpartum Bleeding
If a woman starts to menstruate during the day of Ramadan or gives birth to a child, her fast will be broken. Then, it is not permissible for her to fast on the days of menstruation and during post-partum bleeding.
If a woman’s menstruation days have lasted exactly ten days and her menstruation stops at night during Ramadan, she starts fasting the next day. However, if it lasts less than ten days, and if there is enough time left for her to bathe and some more time until the time of imsāk after her period has stopped, she will start fasting. If there is not enough time, for example, if it is imsāk time immediately after performing the ghusl, she will not start fasting that day. Because, for those who have less than ten days of menstruation, the duration of performing ghusl is also counted from the time of menstruation.
10) Working Demanding Jobs
Sickness, traveling and not being able to fast are mentioned in the Qur’an as excuses that make it permissible to not fast. In principle, it is not the proper behavior for a believer to work or be employed in demanding and difficult work that will prevent him from fasting. This situation is also incompatible with the freedom of religion and conscience of the person. If the Muslim society cannot provide better job opportunities to a believer who has to work at such heavy jobs during Ramadan, and if it is certain or highly probable that he will have financial difficulties if he quits his job, then he may choose to not fast in Ramadan. A person who has to work temporarily in such difficult work may choose to not fast if he is afraid that if he fasts, his mental or physical health will be harmed. Such people make up for the fasts they could not observe.
If the hard worker actually gets harmed due to hunger or thirst, it is obligatory for him to break the fast. Allah Almighty says, “O you who believe! … Do not kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful!”
In conclusion, even if a fasting believer, who works at a job, knows that he will get ill due to work, it is not permissible for him to break his fast or not start fasting before he is ill.
Even when a person cannot fast due to one of the above-mentioned excuses, it is one of the good manners of Muslim character not to show it to people as much as possible out of respect to the fast, the fasting people, and the month of Ramadan.
Among the above-mentioned people, the child who has reached puberty and the person who has converted to Islam in the month of Ramadan do not have to make up for that day’s fast for they were not responsible at the time of imsāk. As for anyone else, they have to make it up.
C) Conditions for The Validity of Fasting
For a fast to be valid, three conditions must be met. Not to be menstruating or in the period of postpartum bleeding, to make the intention to fast, and to stay away from the situations that invalidate fasting.
1) Not to be Menstruating or in the Period of Postpartum Bleeding
The fasting of a woman who is in menstruation or the period of postpartum bleeding is not valid. Such a woman makes up for the fasts that she could not observe in Ramadan later.
There is a consensus among the jurists that being purified from the state of ceremonial impurity (janābah) is not a condition for the validity of fasting for it is possible to be cleansed from ceremonial impurity. In addition, the state of janābah generally happens at night, and may sometimes happen involuntarily during the day. According to a narration from Aisha and Umm Salama (r. anhuma), “In the month of Ramadan, the Prophet would wake up in the morning in the state of janābah due to having sexual intercourse without having seminal discharge in a dream and then continue his fast.” It was also narrated from Umm Salama (r. anha) that she said, “The Messenger of Allah (saw) used to wake up in the state of janābah not because of having a wet dream but because of having sexual intercourse, then he would neither break his fast nor would he make up for it.” However, it should not be forgotten that the Messenger of Allah delayed his major ablution for it to be easy for his followers. When possible, it is more virtuous to perform ghusl at night or before the time of saḥūr.
If a person who sleeps through the night in the state of janābah and does not perform ghusl or a woman who has not had time and opportunity to perform ghusl before the time of imsāk, although her menstruation and postpartum bleeding ends before the time of imsāk, the fast of that day will be valid if he or she performs ghusl in the morning.
2) Intention for Fasting
Making intention in the heart is sufficient for any fast. If a person thinks that tomorrow is Ramadan and that he will fast this month, or if he gets up to have saḥūr before dawn, such acts are considered an intention. However, because expressing this intention made in the heart with the tongue means confirming it, it is considered mandūb.
Whether fasting is obligatory or supererogatory, the intention is essential for all forms of fasting for fasting is an act of worship. In order to separate an act of worship from a customary one, the intention is required. The Prophet said, “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.”
a) Time of intention
For all kinds of fasting, it is most virtuous to make the intention before dawn or at night, whenever possible. Thus, the intention will exist at the beginning of the fasting. As a matter of fact, it is not permissible to intend to fast after the break of the second dawn for the types of fasting that are a debt upon the person such as the compensatory (qaḍā) fasting.
According to the Ḥanafis, the time of intention is divided into two groups according to the type of fasting:
- Fasts that can be intended from the sunset until the mid-morning time of the next day. The intention for Ramadan fasting, supererogatory fasts, and votive fasts which are specified to be held on a certain day and date can be made from the sunset until the mid-morning time of the next day and even just before the time of the noon prayer. However, from the time the sun moves west from its zenith until the evening, no intention of fasting can be made. In this regard, there is no difference between a resident and a traveler, or a patient and a healthy person.
However, making an intention for such fasts before noon depends on not doing anything that invalidates fasting, such as not eating and drinking anything after the second dawn. When such a thing happens knowingly or unknowingly, it is no longer permissible to intend to fast.
There are hadiths showing that one can intend to perform a supererogatory fast before noon. In one of such hadiths, it is stated that the Messenger of Allah (saw) fasted one day after he asked Aisha (r. anha) whether she had prepared anything to eat and she replied that she had nothing to eat.
According to the Malikis, for the intention to be valid, it must be made from the sunset until the last part of the night or at the time of dawn. Even if fasting is supererogatory, intention cannot be made until the time of zawāl. For when the intention is not made before dawn, it becomes certain that that day will be spent without fasting. On the other hand, both fasting and non-fasting cannot coexist in one day.
According to Shafiʿis, it is necessary to intend for Ramadan fasting, compensatory fasting, and votive fasts at night. However, it is permissible to intend for a supererogatory fast until before the time of zawāl.
- The fasts that should be intended from the sunset until the imsāk time at the latest. These are the fasts that are a debt upon a person. Making up Ramadan fasting, and making up a supererogatory fast that has been broken untimely after it started, the fasts of atonement with all its varieties, and the absolute votive fasts with no specific date to observe are included in this group.
It is obligatory to make the intention for such fasts at night or at the beginning of the second dawn at the latest. It is also necessary to specify them in the intent made. Therefore, if the intention is made for any of them after the second dawn or if the type of fasting is not specified by heart, such fasts are not considered valid. This is because there is no specific day for these fasts predetermined by Islam. Therefore, it must be determined by the intention of the fasting person.
On the other hand, deciding to fast in the evening or waking up for saḥūr before dawn are also accepted as intentions. However, if a fast that is a debt on the person is observed with an intention made after the second dawn, that fast turns into a voluntary fast.
b) Form of Intention for Fasting
The absolute intention is sufficient for Ramadan fasting, specified votive fasting, or any supererogatory fasting. For example, the intention can be made as follows “to fast tomorrow” “to observe the tomorrow’s fasting” or “perform a voluntary fasting tomorrow”. However, It is more virtuous to make intentions for them at night and specify them by saying, “I intend to observe tomorrow’s Ramadan fasting”.
According to the majority of jurists, it is necessary to make a separate intention for each day of Ramadan. For each day’s fasting is an act of worship in itself and has nothing to do with fasting on other days. As a matter of fact, if one day’s fast is broken, the fast of the other days will not be affected.
According to the Malikis, one intention at the beginning is sufficient for fasts that must be observed consecutively without a break. The fasts that must be performed one after the other such as the fasting of Ramadan and its atonement, the atonement of murder, or the atonement of ẓihār, are of this nature. However, if these fasts are interrupted due to compulsory reasons such as travel, illness, menstruation, or postpartum bleeding, re-intention is required after the obstacle is removed. It is mandūb to make intention every night in fasts for which a single intention is sufficient. The evidence on which this ruling is based is the Qur’anic verse, “Whoever of you lives to see this month shall fast throughout it”. The month is the name given to a single duration of time. Therefore, fasting during the month is a single act of worship. This can be done with a single intention, similar to prayer and pilgrimage.
c) Some Matters Related to Intention:
If an intention is made for a compensatory fast after the second dawn, the fast will turn into a supererogatory one, since the compensatory fasting will not be valid with such intention. According to the Ḥanafis, if this fast is to be broken, it must be made up. This is because it is not permissible to abandon an act of worship that has already begun.
If a person intends “to fast tomorrow” before the sun sets, he will not be fasting until he confirms his intention before the next zawāl time. However, the intention made after sunset is sufficient.
It is possible for a person, after intending to fast at night, to give up his intention before the second dawn. In like manner, if a fasting person intends to break his fast but does not break it, his fast will not be broken with such an abstract intention that he has thought or verbally expressed.
If a person knows that the month of Ramadan has commenced but intends neither to fast nor not to fast – according to the clear narration – he will not be fasting.
The intention should not be hesitant or conditional. For example, making the intention by saying “I intend not to fast if I am invited to a party tomorrow, and to fast “if I am not invited” is not considered valid. One cannot start fasting with such an uncertain intention. However, making the intention by saying, “God willing I intend to fast tomorrow” is considered valid.
In the case of the fasts for which it is permissible to intend before noon, if the intention is made during the day, the intention must include fasting from the beginning of that day. Otherwise, if one intends to fast from the moment it is intended, it will not be valid.
If a person who faints or suffers from mental illness during the night or day of Ramadan gets up before the time of istiwā and makes an intention to fast, his or her fasting is considered valid.
If a person intends to perform another obligatory fast in the month of Ramadan, he will be deemed to have made his intention for the Ramadan fast. According to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, there is no difference between a resident and a traveler in this regard. According to Abu Ḥanīfa, in this case, the traveler will be fasting for the obligatory fast he intended because he is not obligated to perform Ramadan fasting.
If one intends to perform voluntary fasting, according to the sounder view, it will be intended for Ramadan fasting. Such intentions of an ill person, according to sound opinion, will be made for Ramadan fasting.
The absolute intentions of the traveler and the ill will also be accepted as intentions for the Ramadan fast.
If fasting is intended on the day of a specified votive fast with the intention of another obligatory fasting, such as atonement or the making up Ramadan fasting, this fast -according to sound opinion- will be accepted for the obligatory fasting, while the specified votive fasting has to be made up.
If one intends to do both atonement and voluntary fasting at the same time, it will be accepted as atonement. However, if one intends for both compensatory and atonement of a broken oath, none of them will be considered valid because these two fasts are equivalent in terms of obligation to fulfill them. Such a fast turns into a voluntary fasting.
While making up for one or more Ramadan fasts, it is more appropriate to intend to “fast that which is necessary to make up first”. However, it is sufficient to intend the make up of a Ramadan fast alone without specifying it.
If a woman intends to fast at night while she is still menstruating, her fast will be valid if she is cleansed before the second dawn.
If people who are taken captive or are in prison have doubts about whether the month of Ramadan has begun, they fast for a month, according to the conclusion they have reached as a result of individual research. This is similar to searching for the qibla and prayer times. If these fasts coincide with Ramadan or if they are observed with the intention made at night after the month of Ramadan or after the Eid days when fasting is not permissible, it will still be considered permissible. If all days of Ramadan are not fasted, the missing days are made up. However, if the fasts coincide with the days before the month of Ramadan, they are not regarded as permissible, and they will be accepted as voluntary fasting.
If one intends to fast after sunset, eating, drinking, and having sexual intercourse until the second dawn will not harm the fast. This is because the intention made from the night is made for the fasting that will start after the second dawn. As a matter of fact, it is possible to withdraw this intention and decide not to fast until before the second dawn.
3) Avoiding Things that Invalidate the Fast
For the fast to be valid, it is necessary to avoid the pleasures of eating, drinking, and having sexual intercourse between the time of imsāk and the time when the sun sets. It includes eating and drinking everything that is customary to eat and drink. Smoking and tobacco-based smoky substances such as cigarettes, hookahs, and all substances taken as a matter of addiction are included in the prohibition of fasting, as well as all kinds of drugs taken orally. The provision of getting an injection for treatment is controversial, and we will explain this and a few other issues under the heading “Prohibitions of Fasting” below.
 Al-Anfāl, 8: 38. Al-Bukhari, Ṭalāq, 11, Ḥudūd, 22, Abū Dawūd, Ḥudūd, 17; al-Tirmidhī, Ḥudūd, 1; al-Nasā’ī, Ṭalāq, 21; Ibn Maja, Ṭalāq, 15. Akyüz, ibid, vol. 2, p. 356. Al-Baqara, 2: 184. The views regarding travel distance can be found above in the related section. See al-Kāsānī, Badāyi al-Ṣanāʿiʿ, II, 87 ff.; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, II, 87 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, 108 ff.; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, II, 145 ff.; Lubāb, 172 ff.; Ibn Rushd (Averroes), ibid, I, 288. Al-Baqara, 2: 184, See “Traveler’s Prayer.” Al-Bukhari, Ṣawm, 34, 38, Maghāzi, 47; Muslim, Ṣiyām, 87-90; al-Nasā’ī, Ṣiyām, 49, 54, 55, 61; al-Darimī, Ṣawm, 15; Malik, Muwaṭṭā’, Ṣiyām, 21. Among the health problems that make it permissible to break the fast, medical professionals have mentioned the following diseases: Severe heart disease, severe tuberculosis, liver inflammation, cancers, extreme kidney inflammation, those with stones in the urinary tract and those who are passing it, atherosclerosis, severe diabetes. Al-Nasā’ī, Ṣiyām, 50, 51, 62; Ibn Maja, Ṣiyām, 3, 50; al-Tirmidhī, Aḍāḥī, 10; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, II, 183. Al-Baqara, 2: 184. Al-Bukhari, Tafsīru surah 2/25; Abū Dawūd, Savm. 3; al-Tirmidhī, Aḍāḥī, 10; Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, II, 183; Ibn Maja, Ṣiyām, 50. Al-Ḥajj, 22: 78. Al-Baqara, 2: 195. Al-Nisā, 4: 29. Al-Baqara, 2: 184, 185. Al-Nisā, 4: 29. For more information see al-Kāsānī, ibid, II, 94-97; Ibn Abidīn, ibid, II, 158-168; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, p. 115-117; Ibn Rushd (Averroes), ibid, I, 285-288; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, III, 99 ff.; al-Buhūti, Kashshāf, II, 361; Bilmen ibid, p. 300 ff. Al-Kasānī, ibid, II, 102 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, 114; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, II, 649; Bilmen, ibid, p. 303. Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, VI, 34, 36, 38, 67. Muslim, Ṣiyām, 77. Ibn Abidīn, ibid, II, 116 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, ibid, 105; al-Shirbinī, ibid, I, 423, 432; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, II, 616 ff. Al-Bukhari, Bad’ al-waḥy, 1; Muslim, ‘Imāra, 155. Al-Kāsānī, ibid, II, 85; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, II, 43-50, 62; al-Shurunbulālī, p. 106; al-Maydanī, Lubāb, I, 163. The hadith was narrated by al-Dāraqutnī who stated that its chain of transmission is “ṣaḥīḥ.” Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Bidāyat al-Mujtahid, Egypt (n.d.), I, 284; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, II, 619, 620. See al-Shirbinī, ibid, I, 423 ff.; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, II, 620. Al-Kāsānī, ibid, II, 85; Ibn Rushd (Averroes), ibid, I, 282 ff.; Ibn Qudāmah, Mughnī, III, 93; al-Shirbinī, ibid, I, 424. See al-Kāsānī, ibid, II, p. 83 ff.; Ibn al-Humām, ibid, II, p. 43 ff.; al-Shurunbulālī, p. 106; al-Sarakhsī, Mabsūt, 3rd ed., Beirut 1398/1978, III, p. 128 ff.; al-Fatawā al-Hindiyya, 3rd ed., Bulak 1393/1973, I, 194 ff.; al-Zuhaylī, ibid, II, p. 624 ff.; Bilmen, Büyük İslam İlmihali, p. 285 ff.