What is the baath in islam? What does revival after death mean?
The revival of all the dead on the day of Resurrection will occur with archangel Israfil’s second blowing of the Trumpet. With this second sounding, all creatures will be restored to life. This is referred to as ba’thu ba’dal mawt or revival after death.
Abu Hurayra (may Allah be well pleased with him) once asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) about the time between the two blowings of the Trumpet, to which Allah’s Messenger replied that there would be an interval of forty.
When Abu Hurayra was asked whether this expression meant forty years, forty months or forty days, he insistently responded to each saying, “I cannot say anything.” Then continuing to transmit the words of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) he related:
“Then Allah will cause water to pour forth from the sky and they (the people) will sprout like vegetables. The only thing in a human being which will not decay will be one bone (the tailbone), referred to as ‘ajb al-dhanab, from which the whole (bodily) frame would be reconstituted on the Day of Resurrection.” (Bukhari, Tafsir, 39/3; Muslim, Fitan, 141; Muwatta’, Jana’iz, 48; Abu Dawud, Sunna, 24; Nasa’i, Jana’iz, 117)
According to the Hadith scholar and grammarian al-Farra’:
“Human beings and all creation will die with the first blowing of the Trumpet. There are forty years between this and the second. At this point, Allah will send rain. For forty days, the rain will be of the consistency of male seminal fluid. Human beings will be cast forth in their graves like are cast forth in their mother’s womb. This is what is expressed in the following Qur’anic verse:
‘It is He who sends out the winds, bringing advance news of His mercy, so that when they have lifted up the heavy clouds, We dispatch them to a dead land and send down water to it, by means of which We bring forth all kinds of fruit. In the same way We bring forth the dead, so that hopefully you will pay heed.” (Al-A’raf, 7:57)
That is to say, “We bring forth the dead from their graves like We bring forth plants from the earth.”
In the Qur’an, Allah Almighty addresses those who have doubt as to how the revival after death will take place:
“Mankind! If you are in any doubt about the Rising, know that We created you from dust, then from a drop of sperm then from a clot of blood then from a lump of flesh, formed yet unformed, so We may make thigs clear to you. We make whatever We will stay in the womb until a specified time and then We bring you out as children so that you might reach full maturity. Some of you die and some of you revert to the lowest form of life so that, after having knowledge, they then know nothing at all. And you see the earth dead and barren; then when We send down water onto it quivers and swells and sprouts with luxuriant plants of every kind. That is because Allah is the Real and gives life to the dead and has power over all things and the Hour is coming without any doubt and Allah will raise up those in the graves.” (Al-Hajj, 22:5-7)
The reality of resurrection that Allah Almighty announces is also expressed in the following conversation which took place between the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and Abu Razin (may Allah be well pleased with him):
Abu Razin al-Uqaili (may Allah be well pleased with him) narrates:
“I once asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, how will Allah bring the dead back to life? What is the sign of this in His creation?’
The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, ‘O Abu Razin, do you not pass through the valley of your people and see it arid and barren, and then pass through it and see it stirred to life and green)?’
I said, ‘Yes.’
He said, ‘This is how Allah will bring the dead back to life.'” (Ahmed, IV, 11)
The great confoundment and remorse that the deniers of the Resurrection will face when they are revived and restored to life is described in the verses of the Qur’an as follows:
“There will be but one Great Blast and then their eyes will open. They will say, ‘Alas for us! This is the Day of Reckoning!’ This is the Day of Decision you used to deny.” (As-Saffat, 37:19-21)
“They will emerge from their graves with downcast eyes, like swarming locusts, necks outstretched, eyes transfixed, rushing headlong to the Summoner. The unbelievers will say, ‘This is a pitiless day!’” (Al-Qamar, 54:7-8)
This is because they belied the life of the Next World, supposing their lives to be comprised solely of their worldly experience. This truth is expressed in the Qur’an as follows:
“They say, ‘There is nothing but our existence is this world. We die and we live and nothing destroys us except time.’ They have no knowledge of that. They are only conjecturing. When Our Clear Signs are recited to them their only argument is to say, ‘Bring us our fathers if you are telling the truth.’ Say: ‘Allah gives you life, then causes you to die, and then will gather you together for the Day of Rising about which there is no doubt. But most people do not know it.’” (Al-Jathiyya, 45:24-26)
In his denial of the resurrection, one of Islam’s stubborn enemies Ubayy ibn Khalaf once picked up a piece of decayed bone from the ground, crumbling it in his hands, and said deridingly to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace):
“Do you believe that Allah will revive these decayed bones?”
The Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said to him in response:
“Yes. Allah will revive you and will admit you into the Fire.” (Qurtubi, al-Jami’, XV, 58; Wahidi, p. 379)
The following verses from the Qur’an were subsequently revealed:
“Does not man see that We created him from a drop yet there he is, an open antagonist! He makes likenesses of Us and forgets his own creation, saying, ‘Who will give life to bones when they are decayed?’ Say ‘He who made them in the first place will bring them back to life. He has total knowledge of each created thing.” (Ya Sin, 36:77-79)
At the beginning of the Qur’anic chapter Al-Qiyama (The Rising), Allah describes the ease with which He will restore human beings to life after death:
“Does man imagine We will not reassemble his bones? On the contrary! We are well able to reshape his fingers.” (Al-Qiyama, 75:3-4)
Allah declares in the Qur’anic chapter Luqman:
“Your creating and rising is only like that of a single self. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.” (Luqman, 31:28)
The first creation undoubtedly constitutes evidence of the second creation. This is because creating something from nothing is more difficult that destroying an already existing thing and then restoring it to life afterwards. Accepting the more difficult thing of the first creation while asserting the impossibility of the easier second one is not at all a wise. Moreover, there can never be any question of any weariness for Allah, the Possessor of infinite Knowledge and Power, at the first creation when it is He Who brought into being countless creatures in the first instance, each a wonder of creation.
Indeed, Allah asks His slaves:
“Were We exhausted by the first creation? Yet they are dubious about the new creation” (Qaf, 50:15)
Humanity’s being raised from their graves is depicted in the Qur’an in the following words:
“The Trumpet will be blown and at once they will be sliding from their graves towards their Lord. They will say, ‘Alas for us! Who has raised us from our resting-place? This is what the All-Merciful promised us. The Messengers were telling the truth.’” (Ya Sin, 36:51-52)
“Does he not know that when the graves are emptied out, and the heart’s contents are brought into the open, that Day their Lord will certainly be aware of them.” (Al-‘Adiyat, 100:9-11)
The ferocity and horror of that Day is expressed in the Qur’an as follows:
“Then when the Trumpet is blown, that Day there will be no family ties between them; they will not be able to question one another.” (Al-Muminun, 23:101)
“When the Deafening Blast comes, the Day a man will flee from his brother and his mother and his father and his wife and his children: on that Day every man among them will have concerns enough of his own.” (‘Abasa, 80:33-37)
The Prophet’s wife ‘A’isha, may Allah be well pleased with her, narrates:
“The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said,
‘You will be gathered barefoot, naked and uncircumcised.’
I asked (in astonishment), ‘Messenger of Allah, will men and women be looking at one another?’
He answered, ‘The business will be too severe for them to be concerned by that.'” (Bukhari, Riqaq, 45; Muslim, Janna, 56)
As indicated in another Prophetic narration, the first person to be clothed on the Day of Rising will be Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him). Then Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) will be clothed in his garment. He (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) will stand to the right of the Supreme Throne, a place only he will (be permitted to) occupy. By virtue of his exalted rank and immense worth, he will be the envy of those who came before and after him.
Allah Almighty will gather the dispersed and decayed parts of the body, restore to them their souls, and bring forth the dead from their graves. A life without end will thus begin for human beings who are brought back to life.
The first person to be restored to life and raised up from the grave on the Day of Rising will be our master the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).
The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) once entered the mosque with Abu Bakr on one side and ‘Umar on the other (may Allah be pleased with both of them). He was holding their hands, and he said, “This is how we will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement.” (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 16/3669)
Examples of the Resurrection in the Qur’an
Although there has been debate as to whether the resurrection will be a corporeal or spiritual in nature, there are many verses in the Qur’an which indicate that it will be material. Allah will raise up every human being with their physical body and restore their soul.
In order for hearts to attain contentment concerning the reality of the resurrection after death and concerning the ease with which Allah will bring it about, Allah displays instances of His reviving the dead in this world and mentions their examples in the Qur’an as follows:
a) The Revival of Birds Cut into Pieces:
It is declared in a Qur’anic verse:
“When Ibrahim said, ‘My Lord, show me how You bring the dead to life.’ He asked, ‘Do you not then believe?’ He replied, ‘Indeed I do! But so that my heart may be at peace.’ He said, ‘Take four birds and train them to yourself. Then put a part of them on each mountain and call to them; they will come rushing to you. Know that Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.’” (Al-Baqara, 2:260)
According to narration, Allah ordered Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) to cut four birds into pieces, to scatter the parts, and then to place each piece on a separate hill, reserving the heads.
Prophet Ibrahim (upon him be peace) is said to have caught a peacock, rooster, raven and an eagle. He cut them up into four pieces, mixed all the pieces, and then placed a portion on various hills. He then called the birds in the name of Allah and the birds immediately sprang to life. Each piece joined with the others from the same body, attaching to the correct head to form the original whole.
It has also been suggested that Prophet Ibrahim’s placing the bird pieces on different hills indicates that there was a large crowd gathered around him. In other words, the implication is that he may have been commanded to scatter the birds in a high place so that they could easily be seen by the people. Accordingly, Ibrahim (upon him be peace) was given a miracle from Allah Almighty to prove to those who denied the revival after death.
Prophet Ibrahim is one of the greatest Prophet s. As a result, it is unthinkable that he entertained even the slightest doubt about God’s raising the dead back to life.
Surely, Allah Almighty also knew that Ibrahim (upon him be peace) was one of the people of belief. However, in order for all others to know what was implied in Ibrahim’s words, “My Lord, show me how You will restore life to the dead,” Allah asked him, “Why? Do you not believe?” As indicated in the Qur’anic verse, Prophet Ibrahim then goes on to state that he made such a request from Allah Almighty so that his heart could be at peace by witnessing the truth directly and for his belief to reach complete certainty by beholding this manifestation of Divine majesty. For there is no doubt that when people see something with their own eyes, their belief is strengthened to the point of becoming unshakeable.
On the other hand, it has also been suggested that Prophet Ibrahim’s making such a request was aimed at his heart’s attaining complete conviction, since he was blessed to be the ‘intimate friend of Allah’.
Moreover, the Qur’anic verse reveals the truth that no matter what spiritual station a person reaches, there is still progress that can be made in the way of spiritual perfection
Even Ibrahim (upon him be peace) who is one of the five great Prophet s (ulul-‘azm), or ‘those endowed with a great mission’, who carries the rank of intimate friend of God, and who the Qur’an indicates was the recipient of many Divine favours, even he prayed to Allah to increase his certainty and asked help from Him in this regard.
b) The Revival of those Struck by Lightning
It is stated in the Qur’an:
“And when you said, ‘Musa, we will not believe in you until we see Allah with our own eyes.’ So the thunder-bolt struck you dead while you were looking. Then We brought you back to life after your death, so that perhaps you would show thanks.” (Al-Baqara, 2:55-56)
As can be understood from these verses, some from amongst the people of Prophet Musa (upon him be peace) said that they would not believe unless they saw Allah, after which Allah struck them with a thunderbolt. Then Allah revived those who were killed when the thunderbolt seized them, and they thus came to directly perceive the might of Allah.
This incident in the Qur’an shows those who deny the resurrection after death that this is not at all difficult for Allah. God’s granting Isa (upon him be peace) the ability to bring the dead back to life, and the raising up of the People of the Cave after three hundred or so years asleep, also serves to show those who deny the resurrection in the Next World, the infinite power of Allah.
c) The Revival of those who remained dead for a Hundred Years
One of the matters to which the Meccan polytheists objected most to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was the resurrection of the dead. While accepting this did not suit their egos on the one hand, they also had difficulty understanding how bodies that had disintegrated and become dust would be raised up back to life. Allah Almighty revealed to His Messenger many Qur’anic verses that would dispel these doubts of the polytheists, describing the reality of revival after death with many clear metaphors. One of these is the incident which took place in the time of the Prophet ‘Uzayr, (peace be upon him) whereby a man who remained dead for a hundred years was brought back to life. It is stated in a verse:
“Or the one who had passed by a town which had fallen into ruin. He asked, ‘How can Allah restore this to life when it has died? Allah caused him to die a hundred years then brought him back to life. Then He asked, ‘How long have you been here?’ He replied, ‘I have been a day or part of a day.’ He said, ‘Not so! You have been here for a hundred years. Look at your food and drink – it has gone bad – and look at your donkey so We could make you a Sign for all mankind. Look at the bones – how We raise them up and clothe them in flesh.’ When it had become clear to him, he said, ‘Now I know that Allah has power over all things.’” (Al-Baqara, 2:259)
This individual, which in some Qur’anic commentaries is mentioned to be the Prophet ‘Uzayr, (peace be upon him) passed by a town the inhabitants of which had died away and had fallen into complete ruin. He then asked himself how Allah would restore life to this desolate town and then fell asleep there.
Allah made him remain dead for a hundred years, after which He then raised him back to life. After the man was revived, he assumed that he had been asleep for a short time, because his food had not yet spoiled. But when he looked at his donkey, he realised that it had died long ago, with only its disintegrating bones remaining. Allah restored life to the donkey before the man’s very eyes and he witnessed firsthand how Allah will resurrect the dead.
 According to authentic reports, the earth will consume the entire body of the human being, but the ‘ajb al-dhanab, or coccyx, which the Messenger of Allah, upon him be peace and blessings, describes as resembling a mustard seed (Ahmad, III, 28) and which is considered to be the seed of the human body, will not decay. The human being will be brought back from the ‘ajb al-dhanab and restored to life. (See Muslim, Fitan, 141-143)
 Ibn Manda, Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al-‘Abdi (d. 395/1005), al-Iman (I-II). Edited by ‘Ali Ibn Muhammad Nasir al-Faqihi, Beirut: Muassasat al-Risala, 1406, II, 794; Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, I, 541.
 al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad (d. 505/1111), al-Durra al-fakhira fi kashf ‘ulum al-akhira (In Majmu’at rasail al-Imam al-Ghazali), Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 1409, p. 118; Baghawi, VII, 132; Qurtubi, Tadhkira, I, 287; Suyuti, al-Budur al-safiram p. 86-88; Bebek, “Sur”, TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, XXXVII, 534.
 al-Farra’, I, 382. Tabari refers to the same report without its chain of transmission. His account mentions this rain being called ma’u hayawan. (Tabari, XII, 493-494) cf. Ibn Abi Hatim, VIII, 2784; Bayhaqi, Shu’ab al-Iman, I, 541; Abu Hayyan, V, 79.
An authentic report reveals that Allah Almighty will send down rain from the sky and that through it, the dead will be restored to life in the same way that plants and vegetation grow by means of it.
 The modern branch of knowledge referred to as dactyloscopy involves the analysis of fingerprints for the purpose of identification. This science has demonstrated the immutability of the fingerprint and that the lines forming the design of the fingerprint are never repeated in another fingerprint.
This is why fingerprint impressions provide the most reliable form of identification in law enforcement. While this discovery was made only at the end of the 19th century, the Qur’an miraculously drew attention to this aspect of the human fingerprint 14 centuries prior. This is one of countless examples of the Qur’an’s being forever ahead of its time, and the positive sciences following suit by expounding and confirming it.
 The views of Qur’anic exegetes on the subject are as follows:
- Death here is likened to sleep, as there is inactivity in both. The horrors of that Day will confound people’s minds and they may well suppose themselves to be sleeping.
- The place of sleep can also be implied here.
- When the wicked come to comprehend their state after their life in the grave and the horror of the punishment of the Fire, they will suppose the grave, in comparison, to be a place of sleep and thus utter these words. (See Alusi, Ruh al-Ma’ani, XII, 31)
 See Bukhari, Anbiya, 8.
 See Darimi, Muqaddima, 8. Also, Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 1/3616.
 See Tabari, Jami’ al-Bayan, III, 81-82.