Who is Mawlana Khalid-i Baghdadi?

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Who is mawlana khalidi baghdadi? What kind of person mawlana khalidi baghdadi? When did mawlana khalidi baghdadi live?

Mawlana Khalid-i Baghdadi [1779 – 1827]

Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) was the renewer of his age, and was an ocean of both inner and outer knowledge. His lineage goes back to Uthman ibn Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) on his father’s side, and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them him) on his mother’s side. His title was Ziyauddin and he was known as Uthmani.

Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi was born in the town of Zur in the north of Baghdad. Even from a very young age he possessed a sharp intelligence, strong memory, strong will and was extremely hard working so that he reached a very high station in both the rational and traditional sciences of that time. He specialised in practically all fields including mathematics, engineering and astronomy. Whenever he was asked a question about any of the sciences he would reply immediately, and leave everyone in awe of his superior intelligence and deep knowledge. He learned from many of the great scholars of the time and took his licence from them. He thus became the highest of the scholars and masters of tasawwuf of that period. Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi lived a life of abstention and taqwa and became aware of the mysteries of the Holy Qur’an. He was the scholar of scholars. He was known as the ‘Shamsu as Shumus’ that is, the sun of suns. He had knowledge of the mysteries of reality and of the reality of mysteries.

Even before he received his ijaza and while he was still a student, he became distinguished in his knowledge and drew the attention of all around him. One time when Abdurrahman Pasha, the administrator of Suleymaniye visited him, he was amazed by his knowledge and wisdom and made him the following offer:

“Take your pick of any of the madrasahs of Suleymaniye and you may be its teacher”.

However Khalid Baghdadi did not accept this offer due to his elevated zuhd and taqwa. Since he had not yet received his ijaza, he said out of respect for the traditions of scholarship:

“I am not competent for this service…”[1].

A little while later his teacher died of tuberculosis and he was forced to take his teacher’s position.  Many famous scholars from various lands came to him and benefitted from him by having their various difficulties solved. However, since Mawlana Khalid desired to turn to Allah with supererogatory prayer, in addition, to the obligatory duties, he would not sit with the judges, governors or rulers and would behave independently towards everyone.

Mawlana Khalid’s words had a great impact on all people, be they common or knowledgeable. He lived an upright life that was admired by even the greatest of scholars. He was a true Friend of Allah, loved by all, very patient and content. He was an extremely honourable man, teary-eyed, his heart full of divine attraction, and the traces of his deep contemplation could be seen on his face[2].

His Trip to the Hijaz

After teaching for seven years, Khalid Baghdadi set out for the Hijaz in the year 1805, motivated by his deep love for the prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). He was shown great respect on the way by the scholars of Syria. During this time he received a Qadiri ijaza from a man called Mustafa Kurdi. However he still believed that he had to advance more in the path of perfection, displaying great modesty and humility. This is why when he reached Madina, his desire was to find a perfect wali and submit to him in order to advance spiritually.

Hence, that great ocean of knowledge reached Madina in this state of mind. One day he encountered a man whose face was filled with light. He was immediately attracted to this Friend of Allah, who was from the Yemen and asked him for counsel, just as an ignorant man would ask for advice from a scholar. That man said to him:

“O Khalid! When you reach Mecca, if you happen to see something contrary to adab, do not immediately think bad of the one you see, and thus come to the wrong conclusion. Keep your eye and your heart away from finding faults and blame. Keep busy with your own inner world”.

At first what looked like a concealed caution turned out in reality to be an indication of the mysterious appearance of the Perfect Guide Abdullah Dahlawi, who would allow Mawlana Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on them both) to reach his true station.

However, when he arrived in Mecca, Khalid Baghdadi was overcome by spiritual excitement and his heart was almost intoxicated so that on one Friday, he saw a strange-looking dervish with a radiant face and dishevelled clothes. He was struck by this dervish who had turned his back to the Ka’bah and was looking at him. He said to himself:

“This man is not showing the required respect towards the Great Ka’bah. He is sitting with his back turned to the Ka’bah.

At that point, that man who sat straight across from him said to Khalid Baghdadi:

“Do you not know that respect for a believer is better than respect for the Ka’bah. (This is because the heart is the recipient of Divine manifestations. A sound heart is the House of Allah). In that case why do you oppose turning my face to you and my back to the Ka’bah? How quick did you forget the advice given to you by that righteous man in Madina?”

Upon hearing these words, Mawlana Khalid realised that this man was not just any ordinary man but was a great saint, and he apologised and immediately grabbed his hand, saying:

“O righteous man! Please help me and accept me as your student”. Looking out onto the depths of the horizon, that mysterious dervish said:

“Your opening will not come in this land”. He then pointed in the direction of India and said:

“You will receive a sign from there, and your opening will appear there”[3].

That is, he indicated that his spiritual training would reach its perfection, under the guidance of Abdullah Dahlawi, in the city of Delhi, in India. These words deeply impacted Mawlana Khalid. After performing his hajj, he returned to his hometown of Suleymaniye. He began to teach once more. His taqwa and beautiful state increased day by day. However he was thinking of India, day and night, and traces of longing and pain could be seen upon him.

Not long passed when one day one of the students of Abdullah Dahlawi arrived, whilst Khalid Baghdadi was suffering from these spiritual convulsions. When he mentioned his teacher in India, Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi was convinced that this was the sign he had been waiting for, and he immediately began preparing for his journey. He left his madrasah and his students. They did not want him to go since they loved him so much. They told him of how they would be worried about him, since the place he was going was filled with danger due to the political situation. Despite all of this, Khalid Baghdadi used the example of the prophet Musa’s determination, under divine command, to seek out and find Khidr (peace be upon them both) and learn from him and showing his determination to go to India, he said:

“If you are looking for the water of life, you must go to the darkness”[4].

His Journey to India

In a short time Khalid Baghdadi had completed his preparations for the journey, and set out with the disciple of Abdullah Dahlawi. They began to journey over mountains and through valleys, with the enthusiasm to meet his teacher who enveloped his entire being. Khalid Baghdadi’s knowledge and spirituality left a great impact on every town he stopped by, and he was bid farewells by the town’s scholars, governor, commanders, and people with great admiration and attention. During this time, he visited Allama Mawlana Sanaullah, the successor of Mazhar Jan-e Janaan (may Allah have mercy on them both), in a town near Lahore. He narrates what happened to him here as follows:

“I stayed in this town for one night. In my dream I saw Abdullah Dahlawi strongly pull me towards him. I awoke in amazement and went to see Mawlana Sanaullah. Without me saying a word, he said:

“O Khalid! Know that serving our master Abdullah Dahlawi is a great bounty for you! O Khalid! To enter into his presence and to serve him is the only means for you to encounter the bounties that have been promised you. Embrace this means with all your strength. Never forget the principles of sincerity and submission even for an instant”.

Upon this I immediately left there and set out for Delhi. I swear that forty days before I reached my teacher, his subtle spiritual guidance began to reach me. In fact, my respected teacher informed some of his friends of me being on this journey”[5].

In the Presence of Abdullah Dahlawi

After journeying for a year, Mawlana Khalid finally arrived in Delhi (Jihanabad). He gave out all of his belongings that he had brought with him for the journey to the poor. He said to himself:

 “O Khalid! Your whole life passed in leadership. Now be a slave and serve that King”[6].

He then immediately entered the presence of Abdullah Dahlawi.  He listened to the principles of the Naqshibandiyya path from his teacher, with great attention and enthusiasm and began to apply them to his own life.

He left aside his own advanced state and served his master humbly striving to progress spiritually. He would run to the do chores of the lodge, clean, prepare the water for ablution and spend his remaining time in dhikr, muraqaba and striving (mujahada). When the brothers would gather for the suhbah and dhikr, Mawlana Khalid would sit in the back row, near the shoes. He would not mingle amongst the people other than for suhbah and serving them. He would close the door of his cell and occupy himself with dhikr and worship.

Shaykh Ahmad Saeed, one of Abdullah Dahlawi’s leading students, said:

“Mawlana Khalid’s cell would remain closed from the day he entered the presence of his master until the day he returned to his hometown. He would not leave it unless he had to. He was living in a mysterious realm, deep within himself. It was a result of these spiritual states that he reached such an elevated degree. This is how seekers who wish to reach Allah should be”[7].

During this time, the scholars and shaykhs of Delhi, who had heard about Mawlana Khalid’s knowledge and capacity for years, would come to visit him. However, he had withdrawn into his own solitude and was so engulfed in the ocean of his spirit that he sent them news saying:

“I will not preoccupy myself with anything until I have realised my aim in coming here. Please excuse me”.

“In complying with the rule of courtesy that one should go and welcome a visitor who has come from another land, the great saint of India, Shah Abdulaziz also came to visit him. A seeker said to Mawlana Khalid:

“The master of India has come to see you”. With the same level of courtesy, Khalid Baghdadi said:

“Please send him my greetings (of salam) and tell him that after I have achieved my aim I will visit him”[8].

One day Khalid Baghdadi was extremely tired from cleaning the tiles of the lavatory. Taking advantage of this momentary weakness his nafs began to whisper misgivings into his ear:

“O you peerless ocean of knowledge of Baghdad and Syria! O Mawlana Khalid! You travelled long and hard to come here, upon the word of a man who you do not know was a saint or a madman. Now have you found what you were looking for? Look, there is no training or education and no sayr u suluq! What have they made you do for months other than clean the lavatory day and night? Is this the spiritual knowledge that you were in search of?”

Khalid Baghdadi was strongly shaken up by these dangerous insinuations. He immediately tore up the veil of heedlessness that his nafs was trying to put in front of him, with sincerity, genuineness and submission and he said:

 “O my nafs! If you try to avoid this honourable chore that my blessed teacher has given me, even for a breath, without thinking it a duty, I will make you wipe the floors not with a mop but with my own beard”.

Abdullah Dahlawi was watching his state from afar, with a smile on his face. After seeing him defeat his nafs, with this final punch, he saw the angels begin to carry Mawlana Khalid’s buckets and mop. Moreover, a light began to shine from his shoulders towards the heavens, those same shoulders which had sores all over them from carrying water on them.

Extremely pleased at this, Abdullah Dahlawi called his extraordinary student to him and said:

“My son Khalid! You reached an unparalleled rank in your knowledge. Nevertheless, you needed to adorn it with spirituality. This is why it was necessary for you to go through purification of your nafs and a cleansing of your heart. Otherwise your nafs would have driven you to the pits of pride and arrogance and ruined you. All praise be to Allah that you have taken your nafs under your feet and scaled the peaks of perfection. Now the angels see to your affairs.

My son! Our masters, who we have devoted ourselves to, are people of the sharia, tariqa, haqiqa and marifa. Now you, as a mujaddid, have become a link in their chain. The guidance of many lands now awaits you. May Allah, Most High, make your aspirations high”   [9].

After that Abdullah Dahlawi frequently spent time alone with this great student of his, whom he had made carry out such harsh service, struggle and abstention. He taught him more specialised and deeper matters of Sufism.

Before five months had passed, Abdullah Dahlawi informed him that he had become one of the people of presence (huzur) and mushahada (witnessing). Mawlana Khalid became the apple of his teacher’s eye.

He would completely degrade his nafs by performing simple chores with the greatest of humility and struggled to break the desires of his nafs through strict abstention. Ten months later he became unparalleled in his time, and a model of a true Friend of Allah.

Eventually his teacher gave him full and complete ijaza in the orders of the Naqshibandiyya, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya, Kubrawiya, and Chishtiyya. In addition he also gave him full license to teach sciences such as hadith, tafsir, and tasawwuf and transmission of his own awrad and hizb. He then commanded him to return to his homeland and guide the people there who were thirsty for spirituality[10].

Duty of Guiding Others

When the time came to part, there were tears of love in the eyes of both. How great was the difference between the coming and going of Mawlana Khalid! Abdullah Dahlawi personally sent his favourite student off on his journey. In spite of Mawlana Khalid’s embarrassment and etiquette, Abdullah Dahlawi took the stirrups of the horse and mounted his precious student upon the horse himself. Together with his successor and his students they accompanied them for four miles on their journey. After they were finally gone, he said to those around him:

 “Khalid has taken everything with him”.

It was with such a farewell that Mawlana Khalid set off for Baghdad and he did not refrain from guiding to goodness and truth the people of the towns and villages that they passed by on the way[11].

Khalid Baghdadi’s circle of guidance grew quite rapidly. Great scholars began to arrive from everywhere, even from distant lands, to visit him and take their blessings from him. His noble lodge was overflowing. On the one hand he was guiding the people coming in crowds, and on the other, he was teaching the sciences of tafsir, hadith, fiqh and tasawwuf. In this way he was reviving the dhikr of the great mujtahid scholars, and of the noble awliya.[12]

During that time, Said Pasha, the governor of Baghdad came to visit him. When he arrived he saw that the people, even great scholars, were sitting silently, with their heads bowed down, in great courtesy, like servants. When Mawlana Khalid entered at that moment, he saw his majesty and stateliness and his knees wavered and began to shake. In a soft voice, he asked for his prayer. Mawlana Khalid prayed that he would be given a good end-affair that is that he would give his last breath in a state of faith:

 “On the Day of Judgement, everyone will be taken to account for their own nafs. However, you will be taken to account not only for your own nafs, but about those who were under your command. Therefore fear Allah, Most High, with a great fear, for there is such a day awaiting you that mothers breastfeeding their babies will forget their babies out of their fear and terror on that day. Out of their fear the pregnant will give birth. You will see the people drunk but they will not be drunk, for the punishment of Allah, Most High, is surely intense.”

Upon this warning and this guidance, Said Pasha began to shake even more and he began weeping in a loud voice. Mawlana Khalid rose and placed his blessed hand on Pasha’s neck and they went together to the zawiya, which was next to the masjid[13].

Mawlana Khalid trained countless numbers of students. His students’ devotion and submission to him was quite admirable. As’ad Sadruddin, the mufti of Baghdad, the shaykh of the scholars, the governor of Baghdad, and the teacher of the vizier Dawud Pasha, would say:

“If my teacher, Mawlana Khalid were to command me to: “Put that pot of milk on your head, take it to the markets and walk around them, selling it” I would obey his command without hesitation”[14].

In his assemblies of knowledge, Shaykh Ali Suwaydi would say: “Mawlana Khalid is like the infinite ocean in the outer and inner sciences, whilst we are a mere drop”[15].

Despite their extensive knowledge and elevated state, the scholars of Baghdad would come to Mawlana Khalid and obey him and affiliate themselves with him, and this for him was a favour of Allah not bestowed on any other.

However there were those who were jealous of him. However, it is a reality that those with elevated virtues will always face hostile people as a test; hence there were those who were unable to tolerate Mawlana Khalid. In fact, they even wrote a book slandering him. However, Mawlana Khalid did not pay attention to their accusations and slander and did not even respond. In contrast, he treated them well and prayed for them. Some scholars wrote books that refuted their books[16].

One man who envied him was one of the ministers of the Palace in Istanbul, Mawlawi Khalet Efendi. He could not tolerate Mawlana Khalid’s fame and reputation.

Finally one day he found the chance to denigrate him in front of the Sultan and said:

“My sultan! He has tens of thousands of men. This situation is extremely dangerous for the nation and for the sultanate. Obviously it has become essential that he be removed before the threat becomes larger”.

Sultan Mahmud Han replied:

“No harm can come to the state from this blessed man of religion rather he can bring us great benefit”.

When Mawlana Khalid (may Allah have mercy on him) heard of this, he was saddened not due to any personal reasons, but due to the harm that may come to his service and spiritual path and to the countless number of believers who took benefit from it. After praying for the Sultan, he said:

“The affair of Khalet Efendi has been referred to Jalaluddin Rumi. He will go to him personally and give him his punishment”.

Not long passed before Khalet Efendi was exiled to Konya due to him leading the Mora Rebellion where he was later executed[17].

As can be seen, those who cause pain to the friends of Allah and offend their gentle hearts, will have invoked divine anger, and will be subject to His punishment. A divine hadith indicates this truth as follows:

“I will wage war on the one who is hostile to My friend …” (Bukhari, Riqaq, 38).

Sometimes Almighty Allah gives the punishment to such heedless people in this world and lets him be a lesson for others; while other times He delays his punishment to the next world, as a divine test.

As for the friends of Allah, they accept without hesitation the apology of those who have offended them, and do not turn it into a matter of honour or pride. In fact, they even respond with goodness to those who have harmed them, if there is no risk of the evil done harming the community, and which only concerns them personally.

As an example of this altruism of the heart, when Hallaj’i Mansur (may Allah have mercy on him), who has a unique place in the hearts of the gnostics and Lovers of Allah, was being stoned, he cried out:

“O my Lord! Forgive those who stone me before You forgive me”.

Similarly, the great friends of Allah, Bahauddin Naqshiband (may Allah have mercy on him) did not become angry with someone who was disrespectful towards him but smiled at him. However, that person responsible reached a state in which he was almost ruined after suffering from great distress. He then realised his mistake and repented.  When he passed by that man’s house, Shah Naqshiband went inside and asked about him. Then he said:

“Allah, Most High, is the One who heals. Do not fear, by His will you will recover”.

Feeling extremely regretful that man said:

“Sir, I was disrespectful towards you, I offended you, please forgive me”.

Upon this, Bahauddin Naqshiband replied:

“At that time, my heart was hurt. But now it is clear. Know this well that the sword of the shaykh is like a sharp sword that has come out of its sheath. However, the shaykh is merciful; he does not use this sword to stab anyone. It is only that those who seek trouble come and get stabbed by the sword themselves”.

In short, despite the negative propaganda against Khalid Baghdadi by those who envied him, the halo of love around him continued to expand, by the grace of Allah. It was so that many scholars and gnostics were yearning to come under his training and guidance. In a very short time, he had trained countless numbers of murids and khalifas. The great Hanafi faqih, Ibn Abidin and the writer of the tafsir called Ruh al-Maani, Alusi, were amongst his khalifas.

Imam Shamil, the Caucasian hero, who fought against the Russians for twenty four years with honour and fame, was also from this blessed chain.

We must make this clear, in particular, that tasawwuf, which has produced such mujahid commanders such as these and many others, does not, as many ignorant people claim, encourage people to withdraw themselves from society, and retreat into a corner. On the contrary Sufism is an elevated dynamic institution that enjoins both inner and outer jihad.

He Established Tasawwuf Upon the Lines of the Sharia

Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi’s influence and impact on tasawwuf was great indeed. This was so much so that after him, the Naqshiband way was practically called the Khalidi way, and this branch became the most widespread of the schools of tasawwuf in the lands of the Ottomans.

Mawlana Khalid brought to the sciences of the sharia and the spiritual sciences, a kind of new taste from the Age of Bliss. He defended the pure religion, which had been threatened by the false beliefs of that time, and he preserved tasawwuf in its essence. He spent his entire life in accordance with the verse: ‘…do not put yourselves forward in front of Allah and of His Messenger[18]that is, beware of the heedlessness and nerve of putting forth your own opinions and standards above the Book and the Messenger” and he never compromised on any of the sharia rulings.

He would warn those who inclined towards their nafs, who parted from the way of the Sunnah, and who indulged in innovation (bid’a) and persisted in doing so until they were reformed.

It was on account of his efforts that Baghdad became known as ‘majmau al-bahrayn’ that is, ‘the place where the two oceans of the physical and the spiritual met’. It was due to him that it once again became apparent that the sciences of the sharia and of tasawwuf were not in opposition to each other, but rather completed each other, so that they perfected people’s morality. The lights of the sharia, tariqa and haqiqa shone together like the full moon rising in the hearts.

When Khalid Baghdadi migrated to Syria, that blessed land also began to come to life. The innovations that had invaded that land were reduced to a minimum through his selfless struggle[19].

Khalid Baghdadi writes in one of his letters:

“Tariqa is the way of reaching marifatullah. It gains for us the pleasure of Allah, Most High, and the virtue that comes from following the prophet. The principles of tariqa are to embrace the creed of the ahl al sunnah, which is the group who will be saved, to shun the ruhsah and act upon azimah, to continually turn towards Allah, Most High, and turn one’s face away from the adornment and embellishments of this world and in fact from everything other than Allah, Most High, and to gain the state of ihsan which is described in the hadith, which is to perceive oneself as constantly in the presence of Allah.

The hadith states:

“Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him for even if you do not see Him, He sees you”[20].

In addition, this path consists of being with Allah even among the people, as if you were alone, to occupy oneself with study and education, to wear the simple clothes of ordinary believers, to conceal one’s dhikr, and to preserve one’s breaths to such a degree that one does not take even one breath in heedlessness of Allah, and to adopt the elevated character of the prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).

In short, this path is the noble path of the blessed Companions, neither more nor less. It consists of acting with the azimah described in the Qur’an and the Sunnah”[21].

In another letter Khalid Baghdad writes:

“It is clear that the most vital of etiquette, of all the paths and in particular of the blessed Naqshiband tariq is to follow the sharia, to be patient with all one’s might in times of distress and hardship, to thank Allah with one’s entire being in times of plenty and ease, to revive the Sunnah of the prophet, and to distance oneself from vile innovations, to continue to plead to Allah with a broken heart, and to strive, day and night, to eliminate the unnecessary thoughts (khawatir) that arise in one’s heart –even if they are in relation to the hereafter.  This is so that a spiritual wakefulness and dhikr will become established in the heart; so that the heart will be as if it sees Allah constantly, and it is left with no concern, in this world and the next, other than the True Beloved. Combine the state of ‘khayrah’, with constant dhikr and awareness. Show complete submission to Allah, Most High, in all of your affairs…

Act with azimah to the best of your ability. If you cannot obtain something completely, then you do not need to abandon it completely.

There is a very precious saying of the friends of Allah:

“The ways leading to Allah are closed except to those who follow the Messenger of Allah step by step”.

The essence of the matter is this: to annihilate the ego, to strive with all one’s might, to keep one’s promise and to be content with what one has”[22].

One of the great scholars of the time, Muhammad Amin Suwaydi says in his book al-Sahmu al-Saib:

“Mawlana Khalid would call others to act by the teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and would measure his own acts by the standard of these two.

He would not accept any inspirations or unveilings that came to his heart without finding a proof for them in these two just witnesses;  the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

One day he said to me:

“According to those of us who are from the Naqshibandiyya, we do not rely upon inspiration in the matter of the rulings of the sharia. It is not acceptable to rely upon inspiration”.

I said:

“Sir, the scholars of kalam (theology) and usul say that you can rely upon inspiration if it is in accordance with the Qur’an and the Sunnah”.

He replied:

“If the inspiration is in accordance with the Qur’an and the Sunnah, then you will be acting in this direction anyway, and not as required by inspiration”.

This expression shows how careful Mawlana Khalid was in matters of religion, and how he was in complete obedience to the Qur’an and the Sunnah”[23].

In his book Nuzhat al-Albab, Imam Alusi writes about his teacher Mawlana Khalid as follows:

“… He lived a youth filled with virtues and he spread the beauty of Islam around him.

He was extremely determined in walking the path of the ahl al sunnah wa al jama’ah. He would not spend even an instant in futility, and would either solve a matter of Islamic law, or occupy himself with worship. His outer behaviour and character was beautiful. His heart was prosperous and filled with light…

In short, there has never been any person from this century who gathered together all of the virtues as he did. I have never seen the likes of him…”[24].

Ibn Abidin, the Hanafi scholar of fiqh writes about his teacher Khalid Baghdadi as follows:

“…He never inclined towards this world or worldly people. He would turn to Allah always. He would give himself entirely to Allah, with various acts of worship from the obligatory and the supererogatory. He would not visit the rulers of the state. He never compromised in the matter of advising to good, preventing from evil, and teaching the divine rulings. He did not let the censure of others stop him from walking in the path of Allah. His words were effective, and his character beautiful. He would constantly act with azimah…”[25].

He would place great importance on knowledge and fiqh in particular, and would request his students to respect the scholars and hafiz, to occupy themselves with the Qur’an to the best of their ability, to be sensitive in carrying out their acts of guidance in accordance with the principles of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Thus, he made it clear that it was only by embracing the sharia that it would be possible to reach the aims of the Sufi order[26].

With the moving away of Europe from religion in response to the positivism of the 19th century, our own nation was also affected and as a result, our spiritual consciousness and our attachment to the sharia were weakened The spread of the Khalidi movement, which coincided with this time, played a unique role in preventing the spread of these negative currents. Mawlana Khalid (may Allah have mercy on him) led the list of those perfected guides who served at such a vital and sensitive period.

His fulfilled a precious service in the way that by training hundreds of successors he made the Naqshibandiyya even more widespread in the Islamic lands and increased the number of perfected Muslims.

This spreading and dispensing of spirituality may be one of the factors that delayed, to a great extent, the spiritual crisis of our recent history. In truth, the spirituality of the masses was strengthened as a result and the religion was cleansed of innovations (bid’a).

Istiqama and Sirat al Mustaqim

Khalid Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) continually encouraged those who loved him to be upright and follow the sirat al mustaqim (straight path) and in one of his letters he writes:

“… We ask Almighty Allah to continue to bestow uprightness upon us and you. Strive with all your might for the causes of istiqama for istiqama is better than a thousand acts of working miracles. I advise you to revive the Sunnah, to purge the vile innovations, and occupy yourselves sincerely with the spreading of the Islamic sciences. I also encourage you to embrace the etiquette of our chosen masters, to destroy your egos, to use your opportunities in the way of Allah, to be patient in those things that you do not have, and turn with your entire being, to Allah, the sole King and Lord. I also request that you remember me in your prayers”[27].

In a treatise in which he explains the principles of faith, Khalid Baghdadi writes:

“The bridge of Sirat is thinner than hair, and sharper than a sword. To live Islam in this world is also like this. To strive to live Islam completely is like passing over the bridge of Sirat. Those who endure the difficulty of struggling with their nafs will pass over the Bridge in ease. As for those who do not follow Islam, and who indulge in their desires and whims, they will experience extreme difficulty and hardship when passing over that Bridge. This is why Allah, Most High, termed the path shown by Islam to be the ‘Sirat al Mustaqim’. This similarity indicates how being on the path of Islam is like passing over the bridge of Sirat. Those destined for hellfire will not be able to pass over it and will fall into Hell”[28].

Advice to His Brother Who Went to Hajj

Mawlana Khalid gave the following advice to Mahmud Sahib, his brother who asked for permission to go for Hajj.

“…I advise you to have taqwa before Allah, to obey Him, to refrain from causing harm and pain to the people, and to be especially sensitive in the Haram al Sharafayn”.

‘Even if they backbite you do not backbite anyone. Do not take anything worldly from anyone without a right, only take that which the religion has considered lawful and spend this for good purposes. Do not seek to spend your wealth on your own pleasures and desires while your believing brothers’ families go hungry.

Never ever tell a lie, nor belittle any other person, and never see yourself above others. Put all your efforts into worship with your heart and your body. Moreover consider yourself a wretch who has never performed any good deed. For intention (niyah) is the spirit (ruh) of worship. Making an intention is impossible without sincerity. If sincerity is necessary for those who were greater than you, than how can it not be necessary for you? I swear by Allah, that since the day my mother gave birth to me, I do not believe that I have performed a single righteous deed and how can you see me better than yourself!”

If you do not see yourself as being bankrupt of all good deeds, then this is the peak of ignorance. If you do see yourself as bankrupt, then never lose hope in the mercy of Allah. The grace and favour of Allah, Most High, is better for His servant than the deeds of all of mankind and the jinn. Almighty Allah says in the Holy Qur’an:

         ‘Say: ‘It is the favour of Allah and His mercy that should be the cause of their rejoicing. That is better than anything they accumulate’ (Yunus, 10:58).

In his commentary on this verse, Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) says that what is meant by ‘what they accumulate’ is their ‘acquisition, that is what they gain’.

Do not be like those who Satan plays with their mind so that they trust in the grace of Allah and give up their worship. Let your heart continue to remember Allah! And do not be lax in this even when you are walking down the road”.

Depend on the strength, power and might of Allah, Most High, in all of your affairs. Ask for help from the spirits of the blessed guides of the Naqshi order. Show respect to the people of knowledge and to the memorisers (hafiz) of the Holy Qur’an. Occupy yourself as much as you can with the Holy Qur’an. Furthermore, study the science of fiqh more than the others.

Do not let your spiritual endeavours keep you away from fulfilling your duties to others. To fail to bring together the constant state of dhikr of the heart and one’s worldly responsibilities is a sign of narrowness and weakness in one’s spirituality.

Continue to do your supererogatory prayers such as tahajjud, ishraq, awwabin and the duha prayers. Try to be in a constant state of ablution. Sleep little. Say the following glorification three times a day:

“I praise Allah and absolve Him of attributes that are not in accord with His godhead to the number of creatures as much as He pleases and to the weight of the Arsh and to an infinite number of words” (Muslim, Dhikr, 79).

Do not meddle in the affairs of the rulers even if they ask you to. Pray for the guidance of the imams, viziers, amirs (commanders) and soldiers of the Muslims and that they be from the righteous.

Ask Allah, Most High, that He makes Islam reign over the unbelievers and the innovators.

What you need to do is to abandon your ego and spend all of your efforts in the way of Allah, to be content with what wealth you have and to tightly embrace the Sunnah of the Possessor of the Station of Mahmud”[29].

His Poetic Skills

Khalid Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him), who was at the peak of knowledge and tasawwuf, was also unique in his ability to write poetry. The poems he wrote were an ocean of wisdom and mystery filled with verses from the depth of his spirituality. The compilation of this great ocean, ‘Diwan in Persian’ leaves the hearts in amazement at its beauty. When it is studied one can see the fire burning constantly in his heart.

His love for Almighty Allah, His Messenger, the Ka’bah and his own teacher overflows from his heart and his tears flow into his pen like pearls. Moreover, from there it becomes verse which is unparalleled in its beauty.

The meanings of some of these verses about divine love are as follows:

“O my Lord! I can never praise You as You are worthy of praise! And for a person who is destined to die to claim such a thing is utter foolishness.

I swear by Allah that if I were given an eternal life and I had nothing else to do but praise Allah, and if I were given two thousand tongues each of which could speak thousands of languages for every hair on my body, and if my nafs and Satan were distanced from me so that they could not distract me by putting doubts in my heart, and if I were to spend my life praising Him, with my entire being, without pause, I could never thank Him enough for even a single bounty that He has bestowed on me! So how can I thank Him enough for each bounty or for all of them entirely… and showing gratitude is another bounty in itself!”[30]

The meaning of some of the verses he wrote about the love he felt for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) are as follows:

“Peace be upon You o Prophet for whom ever since the earth has been a resting place for you, the black earth will not condescend to show the blue sky its face”.

Peace be upon You o Prophet for whom even the highest of high stations is a hundred thousand years lower than Your station of closeness to Allah” (Divan, Bayt: 130-131).

“O best of all creation! Who am I to send peace upon You? Peace, a hundred times to You at every instant from the Lord of the worlds!

O refuge of the rebels! I have come to your door to ask for your protection, with my endless sins. Would that I could ever kiss the place where your blessed foot stepped!”  (Divan, Bayt 136-137).

“O my heart, be aware! for there are manifestations in this holy land, raining down upon the wakeful hearts from the light of that everlasting beauty! (Divan, Bayt: 172).

“It may be possible to fit the world into a fig seed but his praise can never be achieved in the languages of this world!” (Divan, Bayt: 188).

“Maashallah how generous a man he is, such that it is on behalf of his existence, which exudes generosity that the pearl comes from the ocean, rubies from rock, and roses from thorns”.

“If his beautiful character is mentioned in a garden of roses, there would not be a single rosebud which would not smile”.

“On the Day when people of fame and fortune will be crying and wailing, salvation will only be possible through his beautiful compliment” (Divan, Bayt: 192-194).

“If he were not to come to the arena of the Mahsher (gathering place) with his attribute of being the Beloved of Allah, then even the prophets waiting there would be terrified”  (Divan, Bayt: 211).

“O Khalid! Were you to exchange even a single hair of the Messenger of Allah for both worlds, they would limit your freedom to use your wealth as you please thinking that you were not of sound mind” (Divan, Bayt: 513).

Mawlana Khalid also penned the following lines in order to encourage others to earn their eternal happiness:

 “O my soul! Do not exchange eternal happiness for this world. If you look carefully, you will see that this entire world consists only but a few of breaths.

If you are king for as long as you are in this world then its beginning will be a headache and its end will be regret” (Divan, Bayt: 452-453).

His Beautiful Character and Virtue

Khalid Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) was in a constant state of seeking refuge in and supplicating to Almighty Allah. He would endure the most difficult of hardships and struggles.

He was well-spoken and good company. His humour was sweet and his speech brought peace to the one listening. His explanations and expositions were filled with wisdom. His heart was resolute, his words clear and his language fluent. He took widows and orphans under his wing. He wished to serve Islam always and he would take every opportunity to do so. When he migrated to Syria, he restored many mosques that were almost in ruins. He would revive them by establishing the prayer and with his dhikr he would guide the people in the matter of the divine commands and prohibitions[31].

Mawlana Khalid had a very dignified character. He would meticulously follow the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) in his habits of eating, drinking, dressing, sleeping, sitting, standing and other acts. Those who were in his service expressed that they never saw him abandon a single Sunnah or a divine command. In fact some pious scholars who stayed with him for one year saw that he always entered the mosque with his right foot and exited with his left foot. They too never ever encountered an act that was not in accordance with the Sunnah. This is why many of the scholars affiliated themselves with him, knowing him to be trustworthy in the matter of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him)[32].

Khalid Baghdadi was the King of generosity. He was a man of grace and mercy. He would show great kindness and mercy to the needy, poor, and the orphans and would help them. He never hurt their feelings. He would not speak an ill-word even to bad people. He would say:

 “I do not want to be a curser”[33].

Mawlana Khalid was an endless ocean in terms of knowledge and wisdom. Despite this, he was very humble before his teachers and his friends, and he would act as if he did not have knowledge about a matter which he in fact did, thereby preserving himself from pride and arrogance[34]. He was a perfect model for the scholars who wished to act upon their knowledge. He would never take the easy way out in worship.

He was content. He would not waste his time but use it in the best way. He was a man to be praised in his every state, a model personality.

Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi sent each of his students that he trained to perfection to a different country. Thus he saw a great service in spreading the blessed teachings of the sharia, tariqa, haqiqa and marifah everywhere.

By the grace of Allah he would bring life back to the dead hearts, bringing about in them a spiritual spring. Countless people would come from distant lands aspiring to be his student. Through the blessings of his guidance the inclinations of the heart towards this world would be eliminated.

The glance of Mawlana Khalid was very powerful and effective. One day, by the grace of Allah and the inspiration He placed in his heart, as he was walking down a path he came eye to eye with a Christian. At that moment the Christian was overcome by a spiritual trance and weeping he began to pursue Mawlana Khalid. In the excitement that comes from this guidance he entered his house and left as a Muslim. The joy and light in his heart was reflected on his face[35].

Khalid Baghdadi would strive to instil in the hearts of people, the pleasure that comes from marifatullah and muhabatullah. The following lines illustrate well this state of his:

 “My heart is in flames, my chest is burning, I run from street to street and door to door!

I strive to make sure that nobody remains unaware of my Beloved and my land”[36].

In a letter his teacher Abdullah Dahlawi wrote about Khalid Baghdadi to some Rumelian scholars, he writes of his spiritual worth and degree as follows:

“I praise Allah Most High and I invoke peace and blessings upon His Messenger.  O respectful, virtuous scholars of the blessed land of Rumeli, and its precious statesmen, commanders, rulers and precious believing brothers! Know that Mawlana Khalid –may Allah give him health and safety- the possessor of all inner and outer virtues and excellence came to me upon a spiritual unveiling he received. He embarked upon the Naqshiband-Mujaddidi path and advanced through the degrees of dhikr in silence and solitude, muraqaba, rabita and completed all of the duties of this path. Through the grace of Allah, Most High, and the providence of our great ancestors, he has reached a state of constant dhikr, wakefulness, humility, profit, spiritual quality and secret truths…

When he reached this state and rank we bestowed on him permission and authority to guide the community of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him)… His hand is my hand, seeing him is seeing me, loving him is loving me, hating him is hating me, and denying him is denying me…My request and wish from you is that you show him respect and reverence. What befalls me is to ask for good for him and to pray that he be given long life and protection from all harm and hardship.

It is said in a hadith:

“The best of people are those who are of benefit to others” (Bayhaqi, Shuab, VI, 117; Ibn Hajar, Matalib, I, 264).

Know that it is a great bounty for you to have such a great guide in your land. Know it compulsory for you to love him, befriend him, and abide by his rights and etiquette.

The state of ihsan is the spirit of this religion. Glory be to Allah! It is through the presence and company of Mawlana Khalid that you can attain this rank. Through it also it will be easy for you direct yourself to the hereafter and turn away from the carnal desires of this world.

I know of no other period of tasawwuf in which could be found such spiritual prosperity. This necessitates that we support him and protect him, and benefit from him by being in his presence in sincerity and love. Just as out of all his students, Imam Rabbani had a special place for Muhammad Baqi Billah, so too, out of all my students, Mawlana Khalid has a special place in my heart. I praise and thank Allah over and over again…”[37]

The Peak of Humility

As Khalid Baghdadi advanced in his spiritual state, and he drew ever nearer to Allah, he became even more humble. He constantly took stock of his heart, and was in a constant state of wakefulness to avoid remaining heedless of Allah and moving away from Him. He was never content with his nafs and never sure of its end state. He never saw himself safe from the punishment of Allah, and never abandoned his servanthood to his Lord[38].

One time someone asked him to expel a man from the tariqa. Khalid Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote him the following letter:

“O my brother! Whenever I see a sinning believer I always think that he is better than I. Because his faith is known to all and his sin is hidden from me. However the evil of my own nafs is clear to me. It is unknown who will be saved at the last breath. There have been many sinners and misguided people who have become perfected saints later. There have been many righteous people with wara’, who have fallen to the lowest of the low. I ask for soundness of faith for me, for you and for all of the Muslims. In short, it is not possible for me to expel from this path a person who I consider to be more virtuous than myself”[39].

In practically every letter he asked for a prayer that he be able to pass away with faith and that he reflect Islam in his life in the best manner. Some examples of this are as follows:

“…My request of you is this, that you remember me in your prayers and that you pray that I meet my Lord with a good end-affair and that I am able to follow the Sunnah of the Best of Creation (peace and blessings be upon him)”[40].

“…This is my request from your beautiful character and your honourable nature; that you do not forget to pray for me that I am able to remain upright in the direction of the Sunnah and that I die upon the pure religion of Islam[41].

“…Do not insist on my replying to your letters…Because I try to reply to people’s letters but I am pulled back from doing many other acts of good. Whoever loves me should pray that I am able to follow the Sunnah and that my end affair is good. I too pray for them in the same way. There is no need to correspond this through writing”[42].

Khalid Baghdadi never forgot his weaknesses and his faults, and would be aware of them every instant. He would say that people should abandon finding excuses for their mistakes and faults in the way of servanthood, admit their weaknesses and seek forgiveness for them. He expressed this in one of his poems:

 “Yesterday my mind criticised me saying: O sinner, you have become quite embarrassed due to the mistakes you have made” (Divan, Bayt: 284).

“The struggle between me and my mind continued until the morning. It continued to censure me while I continued to put forth my excuses.(Divan, Bayt: 286).

 “Finally I begged my mind saying: O mind, which sees all details and subtleties. Since you do not accept my excuses, then what should I do?

It said: You should say: “I am at fault, I admit my mistakes, I am powerless, ashamed and in shock…”(Divan, Bayt: 291-292).

“No righteous deed has ever been produced by me. My sins, however, are so great they cannot be enumerated”.

I am ashamed of my evil deeds. I have no act of worship done with sincerity, nor the tongue to put forth my excuse” (Divan, Bayt: 1085-1086).

“What a shame that I have spent my life on unnecessary and disordered tasks. What a shame I never remember the Day of Judgement or the hereafter”.

Wretched me, I am building a foundation based on the desires of my nafs. Shame on me that the foundation of the palace of my deeds will be very weak” (Divan, Bayt: 704-705).

Thus, that great ocean of knowledge and wisdom felt with his entire being the nothingness of his existence in the face of Divine Majesty. He was thus able to delve into the horizons of eternity and attained a spiritual richness that was ever increasing and an unattainable rank in the sight of Allah.

His Death

When a terrible plague hit Damascus, Mawlana Khalid (may Allah have mercy on him) did not want to leave the city. He read to the people certain hadith about those who die from plague becoming martyrs. At that point someone came to him and begged him saying:

“Sir! Pray that I do not get affected by the plague”.

He prayed for him and this person did not get struck by the plague.

He was then told:

“Sir, please pray for yourself” He replied:

 “I would be ashamed to not want to meet my Lord”[43].

First his son Bahauddin, then Abdurrahman fell ill with the plague and died. When burying them Mawlana Khalid felt his own journey to be near. He told his students to prepare his grave and informed them of where he wished to be buried.

His students were a little hesitant to obey his command due to their sadness and pain at being separated from him. Seeing this Mawlana Khalid called Shaykh Abdulqadir to him and said:

“Make sure you dig my grave today. When you begin to do so you will find a rock that is hard to break. If you wait to dig it after I die, you may not be able to prepare my grave in time”. His command was then obeyed immediately.

One day Mawlana Khalid said to Shaykh Ismail Ghazzi:

“I have donated all my books”.

That day he had accepted visitors who had come to offer their condolences for the death of his second son Abdurrahman. After the visitors left, he said to Ismail Efendi:

“Stay with me today”. Then he continued:

“If I did not fear that the people would say “Mawlana Khalid is displaying wonders, I would farewell all of my loved ones and friends. I think that this Friday night will be the night I set out for my journey”.

At that point he looked at the meal that was brought to him and said:

“I will not eat this nor any other food. Have you ever seen one who eats and at the same time desires death?”[44]

Ibn Abidin narrates:

“I was in the presence of my master Khalid Baghdadi to offer my condolences for the death of his son. I saw his radiant face smiling as he said to me:

“I praise Allah that instead of sorrow in my heart for this painful event, I find praise and contentment”.

Then I went to see him again on Tuesday and said:

“Sir, for two nights now I have been seeing in my dream that Uthman ibn Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) passed away and I was praying his funeral prayer”.

“I am the son of Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him)…”

“It was as if it was he who was intended in this dream”.

Ibn Abidin was then very sorry that he spoke of this dream and was filled with sorrow[45].

Just like Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi, Mawlana Khalid also met death as if it was his ‘wedding night’ (shab’i arus) and advised those around him as follows:

“I have donated a third of my wealth, my lands, and even my house to go to a good cause…Let my inheritors build a water cistern near my grave as an act of charity. Let them place over my grave, and that of my children, my relatives and my successors, signs that do not contain expressions of reverence or titles. For instance let them write something like this: ‘This is the grave of the Naqshiband mujaddid, the son of the son of such and such, ever in need of the mercy of his Generous Protector’. In addition, let them pay a thousand liras from my wealth in order to compensate for any missed prayers.

The livelihood for my poor disciples will be provided for by this third share. Prepare food for them. Do not neglect to pray in the madrasah and I would like a Khatm-i Khwajan dhikr performed there”.

Beware of describing my personal virtues after I have gone or of crying and wailing so that you do not cause pain to my spirit. Write letters everywhere warning them of being saddened by my death and crying over me. I would like those who are able to and who were loyal in their love for me to sacrifice an animal and send the reward for it to me. I do not say like some spiritually drunken people say: “I have no need of charity being sent in my name or of the reciting of the Qur’an after me”. On the contrary I am in great need of the Fatiha and Ikhlas.

Look with favour upon me and may all of my disciples throughout all the lands forgive me.

May you all be united and in a state of harmony. Abandon egoism and discord. Perform righteous deeds that will brighten my eye in the grave”.

He then went to the harem (private quarters of the house) and took his ablution. He performed two rakats of prayer and then said: ‘Now I have caught the plague”. He turned to Allah and occupied himself with dhikr, muraqaba and supplication (munajat). He was not heard to cry or moan despite his intense pain. In fact the signs of dhikr could be seen in all of his limbs and even in his hair. When the adhan began to be called he responded to the muedhdhin saying ‘Allahu Haqqun’ four times.

He then recited the following verse:

         “O self at rest and at peace,

return to your Lord, well-pleasing and well-pleased!

Enter among My slaves!

Enter My Garden’ (Fajr, 89:27-30)

After that he gave up his blessed spirit in a state of great pleasure to his Lord as a martyr. It was Friday, the 13th of Dhu al Qada, 1242. May Allah be pleased with him! And may we be subject to his intercession.

As he left the world, everyone’s heart be they near or far, practically melted. All around could be heard sounds of crying and sobbing. There was not one believer who knew him and did not cry for him out of his sorrow. He was buried at Nur hill on the skirts of the Qasiyun Mountains in Damascus. This place is now known as Salihiya[46].

At his funeral there were so many people; such a crowd had never been seen before. His funeral prayer was led by his student Ibn Abidin (may Allah have mercy on them both) the great Hanafi scholar.

As Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi was being placed in his grave a very pleasant scent came from his blessed corpse and spread out to soothe the spirit. Every one present there smelt this scent. Some visitors to his tomb from the people of spirituality say that this scent can still be smelled to this day.

The blessings and aspirations of Mawlana Khalid Baghdadi, the crown of the Friends of Allah, and the sultan of the scholars and Gnostics, are still present.

O my Lord! Give us and all of our brothers in religion a share of the spiritual state of Mawlana Khalid who strove day and night with sincerity, taqwa, love and knowledge of You in order to serve this religion as is its worth.

         Amen…

His Words of Wisdom

  • “The scholars of the sharia and the people of witnessing have agreed upon this truth that a person who loves his own nafs, who despises others and believes himself to be more pious than others, is one of the worst of grave sinners”[47].
  • “Know this, that in reality this world is like a fleeting shadow and a veil that comes between the servant and his Lord. The one who harbours even an atom’s worth of love for this world cannot be a true servant. The one who does not cast out of his heart the world, with its shell and its core, is not accepted”[48].
  • “…The goodness of the rulers and the viziers affects the good of all people. May Allah adorn you with their beautiful state. In the same way if they are spoiled then the people become spoiled. May Allah protect you from that vile state. The prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) commanded us to pray for everyone in general. There is no doubt that it is the habit of the Sufis, even if it is not conveyed, to take extreme care in praying for viziers of noble nature, for all of the Muslims”[49].
  • “I advise you to do much dhikr, to seek refuge in Allah constantly, to turn your face away from the deceiving adornments of this world, and to vie much for the eternal hereafter, to remember death and the loneliness of the grave, to prepare for the Day of Account and enter into the Divine Presence, to adhere to the Sunnah of the prophet, to turn away from vile innovations, to pray that Islam is victorious and that the apostates and enemies of religion are left with no one to help them”[50].
  • “In all of your acts and words, abandon your own strength and power and clutch onto the power and strength of Allah”[51].
  • “For every wird there is a warid (an inspiration that comes to the heart)”[52].
  • “Benefitting from the people of spirituality, the Gnostics who are cognizant of the divine mysteries, and even from the prophets is dependent on three conditions:

– Sincerity

– Etiquette or manners and

– Harbouring love for the people of Allah.

Prosperity and blessings can only come from the friends of Allah. If there is no sincerity in the heart of a disciple or there is an act which is disrespectful to the masters, the hearts of the Friends of Allah will not incline towards him.

Love is a cause for the increase in these blessings. The more a person has these three things the more blessings he will receive”[53].

  • In explaining the famous ‘Jibril hadith’, where the angel Jibril comes to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), sitting knee to knee with him, Khalid Baghdadi says the following:

“Even though for Jibril to sit like this seems contrary to adab, this state of his teaches us three important matters:

– It is not right to be embarrassed in seeking knowledge of the religion,

– Pride and conceit do not befit the teacher,

– With this affair Jibril taught the Companions that everyone should ask about the matters of the religion, freely and without embarrassment. One should not be embarrassed in learning and teaching the religion and in abiding by the rights of Allah, Most High”[54].

• “How can a person honoured with Islam spend the entire night in sleep and not preserve the trust of Allah Most High? One of the important trusts of Almighty Allah is to rise before the dawn and stand in prayer”[55].

[1]. Ibrahim FasIh, al-Majdu al Talid, p. 125; Hasan Shukri, Shamsu al Shumus, p. 207, 219.[2]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 125.[3]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 126.[4]. Khalid-i Baghdadi, Divan, bayt: 47.[5]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 129-130.[6]. Kavak, Divan-i Mawlana Khalidi Baghdadi, bayt: 806.[7]. Kawthari, Ighamu al Marid, p. 55-56.[8]. Nadwi, Imam Rabbani, p. 405.[9]. See Heyet, Encyclopaedia of Awliya, VIII, 185-186.[10]. See Abdullah Dahlawi, Makatib-i Sharifa, p. 83, no: 73; Ibn Abidin, Sallu al Husam, p. 322; Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 131.[11]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 132-133.[12]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 136, 138.[13]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 134-135.[14]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 137; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 232.[15]. Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 249.[16]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 133; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 212.[17]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 151; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 245.[18]. Hujurat, 1.[19]. As‘ad Sahib, Bughyat al Wajid, p. 190-191, no: 56.[20]. Bukhari, Iman, 37; Muslim, Iman, 1.[21]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 78, no: 4.[22]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 81, no: 5.[23]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 294.[24]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 296.[25]. Ibn Abidin, ibid, p. 319.[26]. See  As‘ad Sahib, ibid, no: 28, 35, 42, 76, 78, 88, 93, 99, 100.[27]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 267, no: 98.[28]. Kemahli Feyzullah, The iman that everybody needs, Istanbul 1997, p. 56.[29]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 138-141, no: 28.[30]. Kavak, Divan, bayt: 1140-1146.[31]. Ibn Abidin, ibid, p. 323-324.[32]. Ibrahim Fasih, ibid, p. 155.[33]. Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 233, 270.[34]. Ibn Abidin, ibid, p. 319; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p 207.[35]. Hasan Shukru, ibid, p 233.[36]. M. As‘ad Efendi, Divan-i As’ad, p. 111.[37]. Abdullah Dahlawi, ibid, p. 217-220, no: 109.[38]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 120.[39]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 120-121, no: 16.[40]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 128, no: 18.[41]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 141, no: 29.[42]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 246, no: 85.[43]. We should note that every believer should beg their Lord for his own cure and for those of other ill people and be a means for their cure. This atttitude of Khalid Baghdadi’s shows his own unique spiritual rank. In fact this state is a reflection of the character of the prophets. The prophet Ayyub experienced many intense trials and one of them was that his body succombed to a serious illness. Through this illness that lasted for years, prophet Ayyub never once complained or wailed about his state. His wife said to him:

“You are a prophet, your prayers are accepted. Pray to Allah so that He can cure you”. That dearest of prophets replied:

“Allah gave me eighty years of health and my illness has not yet reached eighty years. I have only been ill for a few years. I would be embarassed to seek health from my Lord”.

That is, the prophets and the awliya in their attitude to Allah do so out of a desire to be close to Him, and this state of adab is particular to them. It would be wrong for such people who have not reached such a rank, in their heart to try to display such an attitude. Moreover such a claim, which is mixed with ostentation, will be merely that, an artificial and insincere claim. This is why we should always remember that the words and actions that arise from certain Friends of Allah are particular to their rank and state. Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi warns us of heedlessly imitating such high spiritual states and stations:

Firstly note whether or not you have the state of Ibrahim within you! Because the fire will recognise and not burn only those like Ibrahim, who submitted completely to Allah”

[44]. Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 258-268.[45]. Ibn Abidin, ibid, p. 324; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 271.[46]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 259-263, no: 96; Hasan Shukru, ibid, p. 272-278.[47]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 117, no: 13.[48]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 119, no: 15.[49]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 188, no: 54.[50]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 195, no: 59.[51]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 228, no: 73.[52]. As‘ad Sahib, ibid, p. 228, no: 73.[53]. Khalid Baghdadi, Risale-i Khalidiya, p. 2-3.[54]. Kemahli Feyzullah, ibid, p. 12.[55]. Hani, Hadaiq, p. 697.

Source: Osman Nuri Topbaş,The Golden Chain of Transmission Masters of the Naqshinandi Way, Erkam Publications

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