What are the attributes of prophets? What are the common features of all prophets? Here’s answer…
All Prophets have certain common attributes, classified as sidq, amanah, fatanah, ismah and tabligh. Belief in prophets comprises these principles.
WHAT IS SIDQ?
Sidq marks the honesty and truthfulness of prophets in communicating Divine verdicts, commands and prohibitions, and in all the words they utter. They always uphold honesty in their words and actions, both of which are mirrors of one another. It is inconceivable for them to lie. Their trustworthiness is praised by the Almighty in the Quran:
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا
“Also mention in the Book Ibrahim: He was a man of Truth, a Prophet.” (Maryam, 41)
In emphasis of the impossibility for Prophets to deviate from sidq even for a split second, Allah, glory unto Him, states:
وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ
لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ
ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ
“And if the messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart…” (al-Haqqa, 44-46)
Their trustworthiness is of a magnificence even attested to by their foes. Below are just a few of numerous other examples:
During the first days in which the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- publicly announced the Call, standing on a rock on the Hill of Safa, he declared to those of the Quraysh who were present:
“People of Quraysh…If I were to tell you that enemy cavalrymen are staking out the outskirts of that mountain, or in that valley, waiting to pounce on you and seize your belongings, would you believe me?”
Without a second thought, they replied:
“Certainly! For until now, we have known you to be a man of your word and we have never heard you tell a lie…” (Bukhari, Tafsir, 26)
One of the questions posed by Heraclius, the Emperor of Byzantine, to Abu Sufyan, still a nonbeliever, in order to obtain more information on the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace-, was:
“Has there ever been a time where he has failed to keep his word?”
In spite of being in staunch defiance of the Noble Messenger -upon him blessings and peace- at the time, Abu Sufyan replied, unswervingly:
“No…Whatever promise he makes, he always keeps.” (Bukhari, Bad’ul-Wahy, 1, 5-6; Muslim, Jihad, 74)
Ubayy ibn Khalaf, a Meccan idolater, was among the most inveterate enemies of Islam. Prior to the Hegira, he would threaten the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace-, remarking:
“I am raising a horse, feeding it the best fodder. There shall come a day when I will mount on it and kill you!”
On one occasion, however, the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- broke his silence and responded:
“Allah willing, I shall be the one who ends up killing you.”
On the day of Uhud, that dim-witted idolater was searching all over the battlefield for the Noble Messenger -upon him blessings and peace-, screaming:
“If he survives today, it means I am gone!”
With this thought in his mind, he was able to come within a very short distance of the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- and get ready to attack him. Seeing him further away moments before, the Companions wanted to finish him off, only to be prevented by the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace-, telling them:
“Let him come!”
As Ibn Khalaf got closer, the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- grabbed a spear from the hands of a Companion.
As Ibn Khalaf charged on his horse, the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- pointed the spear, which lightly scraped Ibn Khalaf’s neck as he rode past. But even with that little a blow, he fell off his horse and rolled on the ground awhile, before getting back on his feet horrified and fleeing back to towards his ranks, at the same time shouting, with his eyes about to fly out of their sockets from fright:
“I swear that Muhammad has killed me!”
The idolaters rushing next to him to inspect his wound were all assuring:
“It is only light scrape…”
But unsatisfied, he kept on remarking:
“In Mecca, Muhammad had told me that he would kill me. So I swear, even if he was to spit on me, it would be enough to take my life!”
He continued bawling.
“How could you cry so much over a little scrape?” Abu Sufyan eventually told him off, to which he responded:
“Do you know who did this to me? This is a wound caused by Muhammad. I swear by Lat and Uzza that if they were to inflict on the whole folk of Hijaz the pain I am feeling from this scrape, they would certainly all perish. Back in Mecca, Muhammad had told me he would end up killing me. There and then I knew he was to be the cause of my death…I knew there was no way of saving myself.”
Ubayy, that ingrained enemy of the Prophet -upon him blessings and peace-, died on the return, within days of reaching Mecca. (Ibn Ishaq, p. 89; Ibn Saad, II, 46; Hakim, II, 357)
Even an idolater with a close acquaintance of the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- firmly believed in the truth of his word.
Abu Maysara explains:
“The Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- had once gone next to Abu Jahl and company. Upon seeing him, they said:
‘We swear, Muhammad, that it is not you we are denying. For as far as we know you are an honest and a truthful man. It is only what you have brought that we refute!’ Revealed thereupon was the ayah:
قَدْ نَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَيَحْزُنُكَ الَّذِي يَقُولُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ لاَ يُكَذِّبُونَكَ وَلَكِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ
‘We know well how their talk grieves you, though in truth they deny not you but it is the signs of Allah that the wicked negate.’ (al-Anam, 33)” (Wahidi, p. 219)
Requiring neither an extra word nor speech, the expression of the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- alone was the ultimate embodiment of honesty; such that simply the sight of his face compelled Abdullah ibn Salam, a distinguished Jewish scholar, to remark:
“Such a face can never lie”, as he accepted Islam there and then. (Tirmidhi, Qiyamah, 43; Ahmad, V, 451)
Uttering a lie on behalf of the Almighty is impossible for a man who never spoke a lie, even jokingly, during his entire life prior to being given prophethood. Indeed, the Noble Messenger -upon him blessings and peace- regarded lying as a sign of hypocrisy, emphatically prohibiting his ummah from speaking a word of untruth.
He states in a hadith:
“So long as one continues to lie and carry the intention to do so, his heart is branded with a black spot. Then the spot grows, turning his entire heart black, to the ultimate point he is recorded among the liars in the Divine sight.” (Muwatta’, Kalam, 18)
Nufay ibn Harith –Allah be well-pleased with him-narrated:
“The Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- one day asked, three times:
‘Should I inform you of the gravest of the great sins?’
‘Please do, Messenger of Allah’, responded we.
‘Ascribing partners to Allah and rebelling against the parents’, he said. He then straightened up from where he had been leaning, assumed a seated position, and added:
‘And also –and listen carefully- lying and perjury’. So many times did he repeat that that fearing he would tire himself, we wished for him to stop.” (Bukhari, Adab, 6; Muslim, Iman, 143)
The Quran underlines the importance of truthfulness as follows:
قَالَ اللّهُ هَذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّادِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا رَّضِيَ اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُواْ عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِي
“Allah will say, “This is a day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are gardens, with rivers flowing beneath,- their eternal Home; Allah well-pleased with them, and they with Allah. That is the great salvation!” (al-Maida, 119)
WHAT IS AMANAH?
Amanah denotes the extreme trustworthiness, dependability and honesty possessed by the outstanding figures that are prophets. Even nonbelievers looked upon them with trust. Together with signifying their trustworthiness and reliability in general matters, the attribute of amanah in particular implies their fidelity with regard to Revelation, their faultless communicating of the Divine commands and prohibitions to people, neither adding nor subtracting a word from it.
Allah, glory unto Him, only entrusts His most honest and dependable servants with the honor and duty of prophethood, not the treacherous. The verses below indicate that Prophets have constantly been truthful in reminding their people:
أُبَلِّغُكُمْ رِسَالاتِ رَبِّي وَأَنَاْ لَكُمْ نَاصِحٌ أَمِينٌ
“I but fulfil towards you the duties of my Lord’s mission: I am to you a sincere and trustworthy adviser.” (al-Araf, 68)
إِنِّي لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ
“I am to you a messenger worthy of all trust.” (as-Shuara, 107)
As a matter of fact, the title al-Amin, or the Trustworthy, given to the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- would resonate equally loud among the ranks of idolaters. Ever suspicious of their own friends, when they had to, the idolaters routinely entrusted their belongings to the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace-. Indeed, even just before the journey of Hegira, the idolaters had many of their possessions entrusted with the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace-, who, in a display of inimitable loyalty, had left Ali –Allah be well-pleased with him- behind in Mecca to return the goods to their owners, at the risk of death.
al-Amin virtually became the Noble Prophet’s -upon him blessings and peace- second name—and the only name the Meccans used to call him around the twenty-fifth year of his life.
Those up in arms over the Black Stone issue prior to the Prophet’s -upon him blessings and peace- arbitration were jubilant upon seeing him approach from a distance towards them, excitedly shouting ‘al-Amin is coming’, placing the settlement of their disagreements in his dependable hands. Never could there be a slight question mark raised against his trustworthiness, neither by a Companion who would not think twice of sacrificing his all for him, nor by an enemy intent on putting him to death.
Equal to the trustworthiness of the Prophets, so is Jibril –upon him peace- the carrier of Revelation, attesting to which the Almighty said:
إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ
ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِندَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ
مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ
“Verily this is the word of a most honourable Messenger, endued with Power, possessing rank before the Lord of the Throne, with authority there, and faithful to his trust” (at-Takwir, 19-21) Revelation, is therefore, carried to the Amin on Earth, through the Amin of the Heavens.
WHAT IS FATANAH?
Fatanah implies that prophets possess the highest level of intelligence, reason and insight among mankind. They have been gifted with strength of memory, a piercing cognition and solid power for judgment and persuasion.
Fatanah is not a tedious exercise of reason and logic; it much rather represents a level of comprehension beyond genius, the expression of reason, prudence and insight that abides with the heart. To impeccably complete their duties, prophets need to be in possession of peerless intelligence. They would otherwise be unable to put forward to the people the case that they have been sent for and convince them of its truth.
Prophets solve even the most obscure and intricate problems with ease. Wrapping even the most complex issues in the shroud of ease enables their words to be put across with clarity to people of various levels of understanding.
A quality that has transpired in various styles in each prophet, it could be said the life of the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- is a quintessence of fatanah or prudence. As aforementioned, by virtue of a matchless display of prudence and insight, the Noble Messenger -upon him blessings and peace-, who happened to be walking through the gate of the Kaabah at the time, was able to settle the great dispute that arose pertaining to the replacement of the Black Stone, and prevent what otherwise would have certainly ended up as massive bloodshed between rival clans.
Similarly, his competence when battling in the way of Islam, his prudence in peace, and in particular, during the Armistice of Hudaybiyah, the wisdom in his capture of Mecca and its eventual guidance without the shedding of a drop of blood, his extraordinary discretion and justice in Ta’if, are exemplary displays of fatanah lying beyond the reach of any single mortal.
A Muslim should likewise seize a share of the fatanah of prophets and put to use the gift of reason in the most efficient way possible. Knowing how to say what is to be said, where and when to say it, and no less the behavior to adopt in saying it, is essential.
The delicate approach adopted by Jafar Tayyar –Allah be well-pleased with him-, for instance, in informing the Abyssinian Negus of Islam, is worth enormous significance in terms of exhibiting the ideal prudence of a Believer. When the Negus, then a Christian, insisted that Jafar Tayyar – Allah be well-pleased with him- recite a few verses of the Quran, instead of reciting, for example, Chapter Kafirun that defies the disbelievers in full force, Jafar chose to recite Chapter Maryam, which speaks highly of both Isa –upon him peace- and his mother. Enthralled by the ayah read aloud by Jafar, the Negus, reduced to tears, exclaimed:
“There is no doubt that what I have just heard and springs forth from the same source of light as that which was brought by Jesus”, and he entered the fold of Islam not long after. (Ibn Hisham, I, 358-360)
WHAT IS TABLIGH?
Tabligh refers to how prophets inform people of the Divine Word truthfully, just as they have been commanded. Their invitation contains neither addition nor subtraction. Among the common attributes of Prophets, tabligh is one of their most important duties, as is thus declared in the ayah:
يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ
“O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message…” (al-Maida, 67)
In carrying out their responsibility of tabligh prophets have encountered numerous obstacles, in the face of which, however, they never allowed for compromise. Their lives abound in exemplary cases of such experiences.
The Noble Messenger -upon him blessings and peace- began his invitation to Islam by extending it to his closest kin, acting in accordance with the given time and place, making sure to observe the state of mind and the level of comprehension of his subjects: in compliance with the principle of gradualness he made the most of every opportunity, replacing difficulty with ease, promoting glad tidings rather than attracting hate.
Having devoted his entire life to the call of Islam, in his Farewell Sermon, the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- asked the Companions who were present:
“Have I accomplished my duty of conveyance?” After receiving an affirmative response he announced:
“Bear witness, O my Lord!” with satisfaction over a mission accomplished.
Thus all Believers must also live up to the tabligh methods exemplified by the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace-, to the best of their ability; for calling to Islam is an obligation upon all Muslims.
The Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- states:
“Upon seeing something improper, one should set it right with his hand; if unable to do so, then with his tongue; if unable to that too, then he should despise it with his heart, and that is the weakest faith.” (Muslim, Iman, 78)
The absence, in society, of people who enjoin the good and forbid the wrong, sooner or later results in the wrong becoming customary and accepted as something normal. An evil not eradicated in time after a while becomes ineradicable even if it were wished to be so. Right and wrong become muddled, and as the truth takes flight people forget about their Lord. Consequent upon this is the total destruction of that society. Avoiding such devastation requires that an especial importance is given to the activity of tabligh.
WHAT IS THE ISMAH?
Ismah points to the fact that prophets are immune from falling into sin, whether it is great or small. Owing to this quality, prophets have been safeguarded from becoming mired in the swamp of shirk, both before and after their prophethood. In like manner, it is impossible for them to have a memory lapse or make an error while extending to people the Revelation they receive from the Almighty.
Had Prophets not been endowed with the quality of ismah, then the truth of what they communicated would have remained dubious, a shortcoming which would have cast doubt over their being the proof and witness of the Almighty on Earth.
According to Ahl’us-Sunnah, prophets never commit major sins. Though it is possible for them to commit blunders, unintentionally and in compliance with many underlying reasons, they are never left as they are, but are immediately rectified and cautioned through Revelation.
The commission of these involuntary mistakes called zalla, is motivated by the underlying wisdom of giving Prophets a little taste of insufficiency in comparison with the Almighty and in preventing others from idolizing them through a reminder that they are, after all, human.
The conduct of prophets must be of a kind that can be taken after. People, otherwise, would be prone to dismissing the Divine commands with the excuse that what Prophets enjoin is beyond human capability. In total disregard of this fact, there were even those ignorant enough to expect prophets to be raised from among angels, to whom the Quran tendered the following answer:
قُل لَّوْ كَانَ فِي الأَرْضِ مَلآئِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَاء مَلَكًا رَّسُولاً
“Say: Had there been in the earth angels walking about as settlers, We would certainly have sent down to them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.” (al-Isra, 95)
وَمَا جَعَلْنَاهُمْ جَسَدًا لَّا يَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَمَا كَانُوا خَالِدِينَ
“Nor did We give them bodies that ate no food, nor were they exempt from death.” (al-Anbiya, 8)
Likewise protecting their followers from making the same blunders and showing them the right kind of action, requires prophets to provide an example.
For instance, after his tribe remained indifferent to his nine-hundred-and-fifty-year call to the Truth, Nuh –upon him peace- pleaded:
فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ
“Therefore he called upon his Lord: I am overcome, come then to help!” (al-Qamar, 10)
As his tribe met its ruin by drowning amid the Deluge in consequence of his prayer, Nuh –upon him peace- again pleaded, overflowing this time with fatherly compassion:
رَبِّ إِنَّ ابُنِي مِنْ أَهْلِي
“Surely, Lord, my son is of my family!” (Hud, 45)
Yet, for wanting his son salvaged while calling destruction upon his tribe, Allah, glory unto Him, sent him the following warning:
إِنِّي أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ
“…I admonish you lest you be of the ignorant!” (Hud, 46)
That admonishment to Nuh –upon him peace- has provided a precedent for all Believers to come until the Final Hour.
The attribute la yukhti’, or infallibility, is exclusive to the Almighty alone. It is impossible for mortals to avoid error. Be that as it may, a Muslim should strive to minimize his errors, to ensure which the Quran, on numerous occasions, advises dhikr, that is to say the togetherness of the heart with Allah, glory unto Him, since it is impossible to do injustice or commit an error while the heart says “Allah”.
So declares the Almighty:
وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنسَاهُمْ أَنفُسَهُمْ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
“And be ye not like those who forgot Allah; and He made them forget their own souls! Such are the rebellious transgressors!” (al-Hashr, 19)
Again, with reference to those ignorant of this aspect:
فَوَيْلٌ لِّلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُم مِّن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ
“Woe to those whose hearts are hard against the remembrance of Allah; those are in clear error!” (az-Zumar, 22)
Besides the five prophetic attributes mentioned, namely sidq, amanah, fatanah, tabligh, ismah, there are an additional three, solely exclusive to the Noble Messenger upon him blessings and peace:
- The Chosen Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- is the Beloved of Allah, the greatest of all Prophets, the noblest of humankind.
Poet Necip Fazıl concisely depicts him as:
Eternity has refined your fragrance,
You are honey, Being is your comb!
- As the rasul’us-thaqalayn, the Blessed Prophet -upon him blessings and peace- has been sent to all man and jinn. The religion he brought is valid until the end of time. Other prophets, on the other hand, were sent for a temporary period of time, with some sent for a certain group of people in particular. In this respect, while the miracles of other prophets have remained exclusive to their times, the miracles of the Prophet of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- extend to all times. The Holy Quran, especially, as the greatest miracle given to him, is set to survive unsullied till the Last Hour, impervious to falsification.
- He is the Khatam’ul-Anbiya, the Seal of Prophets.
On top of all this, on the Day of Judgment, the Messenger of Allah -upon him blessings and peace- will be privileged with leading the Great Intercession, shafaat’ul-uzma, and be given the Praised Rank, that is to say the maqam’ul-mahmud. It is that Prophet of Mercy -upon him blessings and peace-, who will hence intercede on behalf of the sinners of his ummah, an intercession that will be accepted.
It is an indisputable fact that loving a person, admiring his character and trying to imitate him, are naturally ingrained tendencies. Pinpointing the most exemplary figures and following in their wake is therefore of enormous importance for human beings. Being of eternal grace and generosity, the Almighty has therefore not only sent Revelation to humankind, but also prophets adorned with the most supreme qualities, quintessential figures who are the living embodiment of Divine Revelation. Such consummate characters they are that they exude perfection in all aspects, be it religious, scientific or moral. In fact, by perfecting certain modes of behavior, each Prophet has rendered an outstanding service to humankind.
Among the Prophets, for instance, a look at the life of Nuh –upon him peace immediately strikes one with a persevering and patient call to the Truth, and an ultimate and passionate dislike of unbelief and its representatives.
Dominating the life of Ibrahim –upon him peace- is a relentless battle against idolatry in an attempt to eradicate it permanently, whereby he provides a unique example of trust and reliance in the Almighty, who, in return, turned the fire of Nimrod into a rose garden for him.
Musa –upon him peace- spent the bulk of his life struggling against the oppressive Pharaoh and his mob, setting up a celebrated social system for Believers in the shade of the Sacred Law.
The distinctive feature of the call of Isa –upon him peace- was a tenderness of heart filled with mercy and compassion for human beings. Significant in his call is the promotion of sublime virtues like humbleness and leniency towards people.
In spite of the dazzling and legendary kingship of Sulayman –upon him peace-, his maintenance of his spiritual state by virtue of gratitude and humbleness, which made him grow ever greater in his servanthood of the Real, commands admiration.
The life of Ayyub –upon him peace- reveals instances of fortitude against hardships and of thankfulness to Allah, glory unto Him, at all times, no matter how dire the situation may be.
The life of Yunus –upon him peace- offers a perfect example of turning towards and attaching to the Almighty with repentance, out of remorse over an error committed.
Even during captivity, Yusuf –upon him peace- personified the zenith of loyalty to the Almighty and calling to His Path, fending off his attempted seduction by a beautiful woman of wealth and fame, her mesmerizing and tempting call, with lofty purity. His heart, adorned with piety, was virtually like a font of behavioral perfection.
The life of Dawud –upon him peace- is filled with an excellence of sentiment towards Divine Majesty. Engrossed in His fear and awe, his tearful glorifications and invocations of the Almighty, his turning to Him, earnestly and beseechingly, provide great lessons.
As for the life of Yaqub –upon him peace-, it is the quintessence of the need to avoid despair even in the darkest hour, to attach one’s hopes to the Almighty with steady patience and to never lose hope in His mercy.
Muhammad Mustafa -upon him blessings and peace-, the Seal of Prophets, embodied all the known and unknown distinguished attributes of the entirety of Prophets to come before him -124,000 on one account-, and more, representing the apex of virtue and conduct. His celebrated life is a vast ocean of which the lives of all the other prophets are tributary rivers that pour into it.
In order that Religion flourish within an environment of peace and happiness, the family of humankind that began with Adam and Hawwa – upon them peace- adopted that certain area of Mecca, on which today stands the Kaabah, as the first place of worship. Spread across vast lands thereafter owing to the demands of life, the children of Adam –upon him be peace- continued their life of religion, guided time and again by prophets, remaining loyal to Divine Truths which, since times immemorial, have been exposed to distortion by the ignorant and those bent on destroying religion. By virtue of sending prophets in succession, the Almighty has always mended the damage inflicted, reviving Religion each time with a fresh breath of life. Humankind has thereby been saved, each time, from universal, individual and social disarray.
Making its entrance into the world at long last, at the asr mark of its entire history was the Great Muhammad Mustafa -upon him blessings and peace-, with whom the life of Religion met its final and grandest display, at the very place in which it had been inaugurated. It is now inconceivable to imagine a greater perfection beyond that of his dispensation, insofar as with him, the regular revival of Religion through the sending of Prophets came to an end, making Islam the religion Allah, glory unto Him, is pleased with.
Source: Osman Nuri Topbaş, The Prophet Muhammed Mustafa the Elect, Erkam Publications
 Also see, Maryam, 54, 56; Yûsuf, 46.
 Bukhari, Iman, 24; Muslim, Iman, 107.
 Also see, as-Shuara, 125, 143, 162, 178; ad-Dukhân, 18.
 Ibn Saad, I, 121, 156.
 See Âl-i İmrân, 104, 110.
 See Bukhari, Tawhîd, 36.