The Subject and Aim of the Science of Fiqh (Shafii)

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What is the fiqh in islam? What is aim of the sicence of fiqh?

THE SUBJECTS OF FIQH
‘IBADAT

(Acts of Worship)

MU’AMALAT

(Daily Transactions)

‘UQUBAT

(Crimes and Punishments)

Taharah (Purification), Wudu’ (minor ablution), Ghusl (major ablution), Tayammum (dry ablution), Salat (Ritual Prayer), Sawm (Fasting), I’tikaf (Seclusion), Zakat (Almsgiving), Fitra (Almsgiving), Qurban (sacrifice), Hajj (Pilgrimage), ‘Umrah (minor pilgrimage), Kaffarah (expiation), Vow, Oath Munakahat (marriage), Mufaraqat (divorce), Faraid (inheritance), Wasiyyah (wills), trade, Rent, partnership, trials (judicial proceeding), Testimony, Siyar (Law of Nations), Law of War and Peace Violations, Qisas (retaliation), Diyyah (blood money), Hudud (Punishments), Theft, Drinking alcohol, Zina (adultery), Apostasy

 

The Subject of the Science of Fiqh

The science of fiqh teaches the rules pertaining to the actions of a legally liable believer. The main subjects of the science of fiqh are as follows:

  1. The relationship between people and Allah (‘Ibadat or Acts of Worship): This main branch of fiqh is related to the acts of worship. In this regard, there are about one hundred and forty verses in the Qur’an. It consists of the following subjects:
  2. Issues related to Purification (Taharah): Physical and spiritual impurities, Major and minor ablution, tayammum, issues related to women’s special states, etc.
  3. Physical acts of worship: Salah (ritual prayer), Sawm (fasting), I’tikaf (retreat in a mosque during the month of Ramadan).
  4. Financial Acts of worship: Zakat (almsgiving), Fitrah (almsgiving paid in Ramadan), Qurban (animal sacrifice).
  5. Physical and Financial acts of worship: Hajj and ‘Umrah (major and minor pilgrimage)
  6. Kaffarah (Expiations): Killing a person accidentally, expiations for fasting, zihar, breaking an oath, to get hair shaved while being in the state of ihram
  7. Vows and Oaths: Making a vow, types of oath etc.
  8. Relations with other people (Mu’amalat – or transactions): This main branch is related to social life. In this matter, there are about seventy-five verses in the Qur’an. It consists of the following subjects:
  9. Rulings related to family (Munakahat [marriage], Mufaraqat [divorce]): Rulings regarding engagement and marriage, Marriage law, divorce, nafaqa (Alimony), ‘iddah (women’s waiting period before a new marriage), mahr (dowry) etc.
  10. Rulings regarding inheritance and wills (Faraid and wasiyyah): the ceremonies related to the dead, leaving a bequest, etc.
  11. Rulings related to financial matters: Buying-selling, rent, corporation, surety bond, money order, etc., rahn (security) etc.
  12. Rulings regarding the relations between the nations (Siyar): Principles of war, peace, rights of non-muslims in Muslim countries etc.
  13. Rules related to sanctions (‘Uqubat): This main branch is about crimes and punishment in this World. There are about fifty verses in the Qur’an on this subject. It consists of the following subjects:
  14. Crimes and Punishments of murder or injury (Jinayat): Qisas (retaliation), diyyah (blood money) etc.
  15. Had punishments: Punishments for theft, adultery, consuming alcohol, apostasy etc.

The Aim of the Science of Fiqh

The particular aim of fiqh is to teach the relevant religious rulings to people, along with their sources. As for its general aim, it is to teach Muslims their religious obligations, and to inform them of what leads to happiness both in this World and in the Hereafter.

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Shafi’i School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

The Definition of The Science of Fiqh (Shafii)

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