The Contents of Fiqh as a Science (Maliki)

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What is the contents of fiqh as a science? What is the contents of maliki fiqh?

Islam can be divided into three categories; faith, practice and morals. Every category has a branch of Islamic science dedicated to it, for example fiqh for practices, tasawwuf for morals etc. Fiqh is concerned with the actions (commands and prohibitions) of a person. The basic contents of fiqh are:

  1. The relationship between a person and Allah (‘Ibadat)
  2. Purity (Taharah): (Wudu’, Ghusl, Tayammum, Special circumstances of women, Types of najasah etc.)
  3. Physical acts of worship: Salat, Sawm (fasting), I’tikaf.
  4. Acts of worship carried out with one’s money: Zakat, Fitrah, Qurban.
  5. Physical – Material acts of worship: Hajj, ‘Umrah
  6. Kaffarat
  7. Vows and Oaths
  8. Relations with other people (Mu’amalat)
  9. Rulings within the family (Munakahat, Mufaraqat): Rulings regarding engagement and marriage, Marriage law, divorce, nafaqa, ‘iddah, mahr etc.
  10. Rulings regarding inheritance and heirs (Faraid and wasiyyah)
  11. Rulings related to financial matters: Buying-selling, rent, corporation, bonding suretyship, referral (money order etc), guarantee etc,
  12. Justice: Adjudication, case, witnesses, oaths, declarations etc
  13. Rulings regarding relations between nations (Sira): Principles of war, peace, Rights of non-muslims in Muslim countries etc.
  14. Rulings regarding Sanctions (‘Uqubat)
  15. Punishment for murder or injury of others (Jinayat): Qisas, diyyah etc.
  16. Hudood: Punishments for; theft, zina, consuming alcohol, apostasy etc.

The Aim of Fiqh

The specific aim of fiqh, is to teach the relevant religious rulings to man, along with their sources. Its general aim however; is to teach a Muslim his religious obligations, and to inform him of what makes up happiness in this world and the here-after.

Source: Fiqh1 (According To The Maliki School Of Islamic Law), Erkam Publications

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