Salah

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What is the salah in islam? What does salah mean in islam?

The second act of worship which is prescribed in Islam is the performance of the five daily prayers (salah). In the Qur’an, the Arabic wordsalah terminologically means to demonstrate servitude to God by means of certain acts. By performing this ritual prayer, the Muslims remember their Lord, express their love and respect for Him, and invoke and strive to express their gratitude to Him. It is vital for the new Muslim to know that the ritual prayer is obligatory upon every sane and pubescent Muslim. It is stated in the Qur’an, “Recite that which has been revealed to you of the Book and keep up the prayer. Surely prayer keeps away indecency and evil.”[1]  One day the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked his Companions, “If there was a river by the door of anyone of your houses and he took a bath in it five times a day, would there remain any dirt?” When they answered, “No”, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stated, “That is the example of the five daily prayers with which Allah blots out evil deeds.”[2] Thus, these five time prayers during the day and night keep for the Muslim clear, the perspective of who he or she is in relation to Almighty God. It is important for the new Muslim to be aware that no matter how faithful and conscientious an individual is, such reminders as the salah are essential, so as not to lose sight of one’s relationship with Allah and one’s responsibilities and to remember the ultimate purpose of one’s life. Moreover, the daily prayers accustom a person to gratitude, move them closer to Allah, help them gain thawab (spiritual reward) and create an avenue of redemption for minor sins. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Five daily prayers and Friday prayer, from one Friday to the next, are expiation for the sins committed between them, so long as one does not commit any major sin.”[3] It has been argued by many scholars that the closest moment of the servant to Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, in this world, is the position of prostration during the ritual prayer. The peace and tranquility gained by performing the ritual prayer cannot be obtained by any other means of worship. However, this does not negate the fact that the regular performance of the five daily ritual prayers may become a difficult act for many people. In fact it is expressed in our Sacred Book that, ‘prayer indeed is a hard thing for all but those who hope to turn to Allah and are humble in spirit’.[4] This is the reason why from all the acts of worship in Islam, ritual prayer is the most important and rewarding one. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said aptly, “The prayer is the pillar of religion”[5] Therefore, be steadfast and patient with regards to the daily prayers.

A Muslim is required to pray at the prescribed times wherever he or she may be –at home, work, school etcetera- but it is preferable to pray in a congregation at the Mosque. Just as performing a ritual prayer before its prescribed time is not accepted, it is also a great sin to delay the ritual prayer without a legitimate excuse, until after its appointed time. It is stated in the Qur’an, “Verily, the (ritual) prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.”[6] The prescribed time of the Dawn Prayer begins at dawn and continues until sunrise. The time of the Afternoon and the Friday prayer begins when the sun crosses the meridian and continues until the shadow of an object becomes twice as much as the length of its height. The time of the Late Afternoon Prayer begins with the end of the time of the Afternoon prayer and continues until sunset. The appointed time of the Evening Prayer begins with sunset and continues until the reddish afterglow on the western horizon disappears and finally, the time of the Night Prayer begins with the end of the Evening prayer and continues until dawn. Every prayer is comprised of takbīr, tawḥīd (expression of oneness of God), tasbīh (glorification of Allah), ḥamd (praise) shukr (expressing gratitude), humbleness, supplication and invocation for all the believers, and the sending of blessings (ṣalawāt) upon the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

Before we go through the acts of the prayer in detail, it is important for the new Muslim to appreciate the rules of cleanliness with regards to Islam in general. To perform prayer and any other major religious rituals, such as, reciting the Qur’an from the ṣuḥuf, it is necessary to be cleansed from legal impurities called ‘hadath’, in other words, the state of major (janāba) or minor impurity. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The prayer of a person who breaks his minor ablution is not accepted till he performs the ablution.”[7] If the person who is intending to perform the ritual prayer has material impurity on his body, on his clothes, or in the place of worship in a quantity that prevents the performance of the ritual prayer then it is compulsory for him to purify that impurity.[8] After cleaning it is important to make sure that one is dressed properly (satr al-awra). That means to cover the parts of the body that are required to be covered for the performance of the ritual prayer. It is obligatory for men to cover the area between the navel and the knees. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stated: “Awra of man is between his navel and his knees.”[9] Whereas women are obliged to cover their entire body except their hands, face and feet.[10] The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also said, “Cleanliness is half of faith.”[11] Cleanliness has a vital importance for the individual and for the society as a whole. According to Islam, it is necessary to clean one-self from both material impurities, and false beliefs and thoughts. The requirements of the minor ablution and major ablution in order to purify oneself from janāba (major ritual impurity), paying attention to washing hands before and after eating etcetera are all examples that act to demonstrate the vital place of cleanliness in Islam. Allah Almighty praises those who clean themselves from material and spiritual impurities: “…Surely Allah loves those who turn to Him, and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.”[12] and “…Allah loves those who purify themselves.”[13] Furthermore, our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said,Surely Allah is clean, and He loves cleanliness.”[14] Cleaning the material and spiritual impurities of one’s personal sphere is substantial for performing the acts of worship. ‘Ṭaḥara’, in other words, cleansing oneself from material impurities called, ‘najash’, and cleansing oneself from spiritual impurities called, ‘hadath, which prevent a person from performing the acts of worship, are conditions to performing the ritual prayer (salah) and certain other acts of worship.

Purity of the body means removing from the body all kinds of dirt and impurities; it is the most important factor in keeping human beings healthy. Cleaning and caring for one’s hair, shaving the armpits and pubic hairs, clipping the nails, brushing the teeth, washing one’s hands and mouth before and after meals and taking a shower are all included in the concept of the purity of the body.  The New Muslims should be aware that dental hygiene was very important for the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). He is reported to have said, “If I knew that I would not over-burden the believers, I would have ordered them to use miswāq (i.e. a stick for brushing the teeth) before every prayer.”[15] In order to perform the ritual prayers (salah) and certain other acts of worship, one must appear clean in front of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted. In the following verse Allah Almighty commands the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and all the Muslims to implement material and spiritual purity, “And your garments do purify, and uncleanness do shun[16] It is important to recognize the implication of such a command. By extension such cleanliness means keeping the houses we live in, the schools, the offices, the streets, the parks, the nature and all other places around us clean.

Therefore it is necessary to observe the physical purification of your body and clothes for the ablution to be valid, for the performance of the acts of worship that necessitate ablution. Another very important detail to bear in mind that is related to the topic of cleanliness and purity is that, while in the restroom it is vital to not splash urine around and be careful not to contaminate (najash) the clothes one is wearing. Therefore, it is recommended that one should urinate in a sitting position and avoid urinating standing up without a valid excuse.  It is reprehensible to urinate upwind, in still or running water, into insect nests, in places where people usually sit and at roads where people pass. Muslims are asked to clean the private parts of the body after urinating or defecating with water, which is called ‘istinja; for men it is important to make sure the urine stops completely before the istinja is performed. This act is referred to as, ‘istibra’. Istibra can be achieved by engaging in certain movements, such as, moving a little, walking, coughing etc. It is also important to note that since Muslims perform all clean acts and good deeds with the right hand, it is Sunnah to do the cleansing acts of istinja and istibra with the left hand.

The human state that prevents the performance of the spiritual acts of worship and is considered a legal impurity is called, ‘hadath’. It is divided into two categories of minor and major hadath. The Minor hadath is the kind that comes into being when a situation nullifying the state of minor purity takes place; this type of hadath can be removed by performing the minor ablution (wuduʿ). The major hadath is the type that comes into being when a situation nullifying the state of major purity takes place, such as, emission of sexual discharge (janāba), menses (ḥayd) and post-natal bleeding (nifas).[17] This hadath is removed by performing the major ablution (ghusl). In other words, the major ablution means washing the entire body without leaving any part dry, with the intention of undertaking the major ablution. Allah Almighty says in the Qur’an, “O you who believe! If you are in a state of janāba (under an obligation to perform a major ablution), then purify yourselves…”[18] Moreover, it is also recommended for Muslims to perform the major ablution on certain other occasions, such as, to bath or shower for the Friday and the festival prayers, before getting into the state of ihram for major (hajj) and minor pilgrimage (umrah) and for the ritual standing (waqfa) on the day of Arafa etcetera.[19] There are a number of prohibited or impermissible actions for the one who needs to perform Ghusl, such as, performing the ritual prayer, the prostration of recitation, entering a mosque, performing itikaf, circumambulating around the Kaba and touching a copy of the Qur’an or a verse from the copy of the Qur’an. At this point it is also important to mention certain details relating to women and the concept of cleanliness and purity. A woman who is having menstruation or postnatal bleeding is not permitted to perform the ritual prayer, fast or have sexual intercourse with her husband. It is not necessary for women to make up for the ritual prayers that could not be performed during menstruation and the postnatal period; however, it is obligatory to make up the fasting for the days of Ramadan that could not be observed.

One who intends to perform the major ablution, commences the act by stating aūdhu and basmala (bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahem –In the Name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate), he or she then expresses the intention to perform major ablution in order to be cleansed from major impurity for the sake of Allah (by saying: I intend to perform major ablution for the sake of Allah). This is followed by the private parts and the hands being washed and the impurities of the body being removed if there are any. This is followed by the performance of the minor ablution. During this process water is drawn to the mouth and nose. Those who are fasting should be careful not to swallow any water. After performing the minor ablution, water is poured on the body ensuring that no part of the body is left dry. It is important to note that according to the Hanafi School of Law, the major ablution negates the need to perform the minor ablution afterwards i.e. once the major ablution has been performed, it is enough to clean and purify the body and there is no need to follow this action with the performance of the minor ablution. The minor ablution means washing and wiping specific parts of the body with the intention to worship. Minor ablution is not merely a method of cleansing oneself physically, but it also deemed an act of ibādah itself, in the sense that the Muslim is following a command of Allah by making wudu before performing acts of worship. Performing the minor ablution assists the person in gaining spiritual rewards (thawab); it is conducive to receiving forgiveness for certain sins. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) expressed this point in his following sayings, “He who performs minor ablution like me, his previous sins would be expiated”[20] and “If a Muslim performs ablution and does it well and offers prayer, all his sins during the period from one prayer to another would be pardoned by Allah.”[21] Performing the minor ablution is a requirement for performing the ritual prayers, executing the prostration of recitation, circumambulating around the Kaba, and touching the copy of the Qur’an. The obligatory acts of minor ablution are stated in the following verse of the Qur’an, “O you who believe! When you rise up to (perform) prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles…”[22] There are four obligatory acts of the minor ablution, washing the face once (from the hair of the forehead to the lower part of the chin, and across from one ear to the other), washing the hands and the arms from fingertips up to the elbows (including the elbows) once, wiping one fourth of the head and washing both feet up to the ankles once. The recommended acts of the minor ablution are to make the intention for performing minor ablution,[23] reciting aūdhu and basmala at the beginning of the ablution, washing the hands three times, rinsing the mouth three times (madmada) and drawing water into the nostrils thrice (istinshaq). This is followed by washing the face and arms thrice. Then ending the ablution by wiping the whole head, wiping the ears once and washing one’s feet once. According to the Maliki fiqh it is recommended to observe the sequence of order when washing the limbs during the minor ablution, whereas, according to the Shafi’i fiqh it is obligatory.

Such acts that nullify the minor ablution are for example urinating, defecating, or breaking wind, emission of semen (mani) and preseminal fluid (madhi), vomiting, a flow of blood, pus, or yellow matter from any part of the body, losing consciousness and sleeping while lying down or leaning.  Whereas blood or yellow matter that exits the wound but does not spread, sign of blood from the teeth, weeping and shedding tears, vomiting less than a mouthful, and sleeping while sitting are states that do not nullify the minor ablution.

The new Muslim should be aware that in the case that there is no water available to perform ablution, or when it is not possible to use water, then ‘tayammum’ is performed with clean earth or something similar to earth. It is performed simply by wiping the face and the arms with the intention of cleansing oneself from hadath. Tayammum can also be performed by striking objects where there is trace of dust, with the palms of one’s hands.[24]Once ablution has been performed, the Muslim is ready to commence the ritual prayer.

First of all, the new Muslim is required to turn towards the qibla, i.e. the direction of Mecca; generally a prayer compass is used to determine the correct direction of the qibla. However, if an error is made concerning the accuracy of the direction, any error of only 45 degrees towards the right or towards the left is not considered a deflection from the qibla and the prayer is accepted. After facing the qibla the Muslim is required to make the intention for salah; this is carried out by stating which prayer is to be performed and intending full heartedly to perform that worship for the sake of Allah. There are three times of the day during which the performance of the ritual prayer is strongly reprehensible (makruh tahrimi), these times are, during sunrise, at the time when the sun reaches at the meridian and during sunset. It is important for the new Muslim to know that during the above mentioned three times of the day, it is also prohibited to make up any lost prayers. One Hadith reports, “There were three times at which Allah’s Messenger forbade us to pray, or bury our dead: When the sun begins to rise till it is fully up, when the sun is at its height at midday till it passes over the meridian, and when the sun draws near to setting till it sets.”[25]

Generally, all the ritual prayers have similarities in terms of how they are performed; to demonstrate here the author will use the example of the Sunnah cycles (rakah) of the dawn prayer, performed before the obligatory cycles. The intention should be clearly expressed by saying “I intend to perform the Sunnah cycles of today’s dawn prayer.” The intention that is sincerely expressed by the heart can be uttered in any language. However, the rest of the prayer has to be performed in Arabic; it is important to note that parts of the Qur’an[26] are recited as an essential portion of the prayer and this is repeated in every unit of the prayer. It usually does not take much time for an individual to learn and memorize Surah Fatiha, a very short Surah of seven verses, and most of the Arabic words and phrases detailed below.  According to Abu Hanifa, until the individual is able to memorize these words, the revert should be able to either follow a congregation at best or recite the prayer in his or her own language for a limited short time . It is important to note that reciting the salah in one’s own language is not an alternative or long term solution, in fact a new Muslim is obliged to memorize the Arabic terminology as soon as possible. However, he or she is free to learn the Arabic terms and phrases from Latin transliteration and learn the meaning of these Arabic words in their own language.

While saying the opening takbir (Allahu Akbar) the men raise their hands up to the level of the earlobes and the women raise them to the shoulder level; both genders turning their palms towards the direction of Mecca. All this is carried out while in Qiyam (standing) in the prayer. Qiyam is obligatory during the Sunnah cycles, all the obligatory (fard) and the necessary (wajib) ritual prayers. It is stated in the verse: “…and stand before Allah with devotion.”[27] While standing the men grip the left wrist with the thumb and the little finger of the right hand; they put the other fingers of the right hand on the left wrist and hold the hand at the navel level. Women hold their hands in a similar manner to men but instead of holding them at the navel, they place their hands on their chests. One is required to look at the place of prostration while standing during the prayer. Feet should be kept in line with the shoulders and there should be a space between the two feet. After saying takbir and clasping the hands in qiyam, one recites the invocation of Subhanaka, followed by the recitation of basmala and chapter of the Qur’an named, ‘al-Fatiha’.[28] The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “One is not credited with having observed the prayer without the recitation.”[29] Following the recitation of al-Fatiha the Muslim says “Amin” and continues by reciting another section from the Qur’an; this can either be a complete surah, three short verses, or a long verse the equivalent of a line from the Qur’an. This is called, ‘damm al-surah’ (additional chapter). The person who is worshipping then bends down to ruku by gripping his or her knees and saying “Allahu Akbar”. Men keep their backs straight during ruku, whereas, women are not required to bend down so much. The worshiper then says, “Subhana Rabbi al-Azim”, at least three times while in the position of ruku and then stands up straight by saying, “Sami Allahu li man Hamidah”. While standing he or she says, “Rabbana laka al-Hamd”, which is followed by the statement of “Allahu Akbar” and the performance of the prostration (sajdah). Allah has stated in the Qur’an, “O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate.”[30] Therefore, the Sajda (Prostration), an obligatory act of the ritual prayer, is followed after the act of bowing down. Muslims prostrate twice in each cycle of the ritual prayer. The prostration is performed by placing seven limbs on the floor. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stated, “I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bones. Those are the forehead along with the tip of the nose”, then the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) proceeded to point towards his nose, both hands, both knees and the toes of both feet.[31] Prostration can be prolonged during the supererogatory prayers. It is stated in a hadith: “The nearest a servant comes to his Lord is when he is prostrating himself, so make supplication (in this state).”[32] The Muslim says, “Subhana Rabbi al-ʿAla”, three times while in the position of prostration. Then he or she says, “Allahu Akbar”, lifts his or her head from prostration and stays seated for long enough to say, “Subhanallah.” While in this seated position, the worshipers turn their right toe towards the qibla, keep their right foot straight, sit on their left foot and place their hands upon their knees. This is followed by reciting, “Allahu Akbar”, once again and prostrating for a second time; the words “Subhana Rabbi al-ʿAla” are recited three times again while in prostration and then the worshiper stands up by saying “Allahu Akbar”. In the second cycle, the basmala is recited while standing, proceeded by the recitation of the chapter of al-Fatiha and an additional section from the Qur’an. Then the worshiper bows down by saying “Allahu Akbar” and proceeds to perform the ruku and the prostrations as in the first cycle. In this cycle after the second prostration, the Muslim sits in the same manner in which he or she does between the two prostrations. This is the Final Sitting (Qa’dah al-Akhirah) and it is obligatory in order to end the ritual prayer.  During this sitting the invocation of tahiyyat is recited followed by the invocations of Allahumma Salli, Allahumma Bariq, and Rabbana Atina. Finally, the greetings of salam first to the right and then to the left are uttered by saying each time, “al-Salam ʿalaykum wa Rahmatullah”. This brings the rakah of the salah to completion.  The obligatory part of the dawn prayer consists of two cycles which are performed in the same manner as the Sunnah cycle. It is important for new Muslims to know that it is reported that believers who perform their ritual prayers in congregation gain more spiritual reward than those who perform it individually. Our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) gave us the following glad tidings, “The prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the prayer offered by a person alone.”[33] It is also important to note that the Friday and the Festival prayers can only be performed in congregation.[34]

It is helpful for the new Muslims to familiarize themselves with how the ritual prayer is performed in a congregation. First of all, the Imam reminds the congregation to line up properly, in close ranks and turns towards the direction of Mecca. It is important to bear in mind that while falling into line it is enough if the shoulders and the feet of a person are parallel to the shoulders and the feet of other worshipers; it is not obligatory or necessary for the shoulders and the feet of the individual to literally touch the shoulders and feet of other people. All those who are in the congregation state their intention by saying, “I intend to perform the obligatory cycles of today’s … prayer and to follow the Imam”. The invocation of Subhanaka is recited. The Imam recites both aūdhu and basmala silently or aloud;[35] this is followed by the recitation of the chapter of al-Fatiha and an additional chapter of the Qur’an out loud, during the evening, the night and the dawn prayers, and, silently, during the afternoon and late afternoon prayers. The congregation stands quietly without any loud recitation, because the recitation of the Imam is deemed the recitation of the congregation. However, according to the Shafiʿi fiqh the congregation is required to recite the chapter of al-Fatiha in each cycle.

At the end of a congregational prayer or individual ritual prayer the invocation (dua’) is read. This is truly the essence of worship. Allah is close to those who express invocations heartily and He accepts their invocations; “And when My servants ask you concerning Me, then surely I am very near, I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he calls on Me…”[36] A believer should know that his or her supplication will be accepted when he or she makes an effort for Allah. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) states, “Whoever wishes his prayers to be accepted, his worries and grief to be removed, should lend a hand to those in need.”[37] The invocation is conducive for the human being in finding their true value in the presence of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted. This point is emphasized in a verse as follows: “Say: My Lord would not care for you were it not for your prayer…”[38] Allah commands the believers to pray and worship, “And your Lord says: Call upon Me, I will answer you. Surely those who are too proud for My service shall soon enter hell disgraced.”[39] It is the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to say invocations after performing the ritual prayers and during various situations and circumstances. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever performs an obligatory prayer with submission, one of his invocations after this prayer will be accepted.”[40] It is Sunnah to raise one’s hands, praise Allah, send blessings upon the Prophet and then supplicate and ask God for whatever he or she wishes.  It is important to note that if one simply wants to supplicate to Allah outside of the ritual prayer, then ablution is not required.

[1]Q. 29: 45[2]Sahih al-Bukhari, Mawaqit, 6.[3].Sahih Muslim, Taharah, 14-15.[4].      Q. 2: 45[5].      Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Iman, 8.[6].  Q. 4: 103.[7]. Sahih al-Bukhari, Wudu, 2[8].Najash (material impurities) are categorized under two groups in terms of their influence to obstruct the ritual prayer: 1. Strong or heavy najasah (najasah ghaliza) is the material impurity that has conclusive religious evidence in the Qur’an or the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). Human blood, urine, feces, and alcoholic drinks are the examples of such strong najasah. If the solid types of such impurities cover an area bigger than a watermelon seed, and if the liquid ones cover an area bigger than the palm, then the ritual prayer becomes invalid.  2. Light najasah (najasah khafifa) is the material impurity that does not have conclusive religious evidence in the Qur’an or the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). Urine and feces of the animals whose meat is edible according to Islamic law such as sheep, cow and deer are accepted as light najasah. The performance of the ritual prayer is obstructed if the light najasah covers one fourth of the cloth or a limb.[9]. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, v. II, 187.  It is recommended to wear tops that cover the shoulders.[10].According to the Shafi’i School of law, women should cover their feet as well.[11].Sahih Muslim, Taharah, 1[12]  Q. 2: 222.[13]. Q. 9: 108[14].Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Adab, 2950.[15]Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Taharah, 23.[16]. Q. 74: 4-5.[17]. It’s applied to end the state of ḥayd (menstruation) and nifas (postnatal bleeding).  Nifas is the postnatal bleeding after giving childbirth and it is designated as the state of ḥadath (judicial impurity) due to this bleeding. There is no minimum duration for postnatal bleeding, while the maximum duration is forty full days (sixty days according to the Shafi’i School of Law).[18].Q. 5: 6.[19].According to the Hanafi School of Law (madhab) there are three obligatory acts of major ablution, rinsing the mouth with plenty of water, drawing water to the nose and cleaning it and washing the entire body without leaving any part dry.  According to the Shafi’i School of Law, the intention for major ablution and washing the entire body are obligatory. If there is any material impurity on the body, it is necessary to clean it. It is only recommended to clean the mouth and nose, because mouth and nose are accepted as inner parts of the body by the Shafi’i School of Law.[20]. Sahih Muslim, Taharah, 8.[21]. Sahih Muslim, Taharah, 6.[22] Q. 5: 6.[23] Intention is obligatory according to the Shafi’i, Maliki and Hanbali Schools of Law.[24  According to the Shafi’i School of Law, it can only be performed with earth[25]Sahih Muslim, Musafirun, 293.  According to the Shafi’i School of Law, prayers which take place before the obligatory ritual prayers such as the make-up prayers, and taḥiyyāt al-masjid (the prayer to salute the mosque) can be performed during the reprehensible times.[26].Surah Fatiha[27] Q. 2:238. Those who cannot stay standing may perform the prayer by sitting or by gestures. Those who fall ill while praying the ritual prayer may continue the prayer by sitting.[28] According to Hanafi School of law it is not necessary to recite it for the person who performs the ritual prayer in the congregation behind an Imam. The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Whoever has an Imam, the recitation of the Imam is his recitation.” [29]Muslim, Salat, 42. The recitation in the obligatory cycles of the afternoon and the late afternoon prayers is not performed out loud by oneself or in congregation. When the evening and the night prayers are performed in the congregation, the recitation is performed with a loud voice, and those who perform it individually can recite them with a light sound loud enough to hear oneself.[30].Q. 22: 77.[31]Sahih al-Bukhari, Adhan, 133.[32] Sahih Muslim, Salat, 215.[33]Sahih al-Bukhari, Adhan, 30; Muslim, Masajid, 42.[34].According to the Shafi’i School of Law, the Festival prayers can be performed individually, while there should be at least forty people to perform the Friday prayer.[35] According to Hanafi school of Law, it is silent.[36]. Q. 2: 186.[37].Sahih Muslim, Musaqaat, 32; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, v. III, 32.[38].Q. 25: 77.[39].Q. 40: 60.[40]. Sahih al-Bukhari, Jihad, 180: Muslim, Iman, 39.

Source: Islam For New Muslims An Educational Guide,Assoc. Prof. Amjad M. Hussain, Erkam Publications

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